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Gregg shorthand is a form of shorthand that was invented by John Robert Gregg in Like cursive longhand, it is completely based on elliptical figures and lines that bisect them. With the invention of dictation machines, shorthand machines , and the practice of executives writing their own letters on their personal computers, the use of shorthand has gradually declined in the business and reporting world. However, Gregg shorthand is still in use today.
Many versions of this system were published. These included "Greghand" in , and "Notehand" in and Gregg is often contrasted to Pitman shorthand , as the two share significant predominance over other English shorthand systems. Gregg shorthand is a system of phonography, or a phonetic writing system, which means it records the sounds of the speaker, not the English spelling. The system is written from left to right and the letters are joined.
Many of the letters shown are also brief forms , or standard abbreviations for the most common words for increased speed in writing. There are several others not shown, however. For instance, "please" is written in Simplified and back as simply pl ,  and "govern" as gv.
Phrasing is another mechanism for increasing the speed of shorthand writing. Based on the notion that lifting the pen between words would have a heavy speed cost, phrasing is the combination of several smaller distinct forms into one outline.
The vowels in Gregg shorthand are divided into groups that very rarely require further notation. There are special vowel markings for certain diphthongs. Due to the very simple alphabet, Gregg shorthand is very fast in writing; however, it takes a great deal of practice to master it.
Speeds of WPM where a word is 1. Some left-handed shorthand writers have found it more comfortable to write Gregg shorthand from right to left. However, left-handed writers can still write Gregg shorthand from left to right with considerable ease.
Throughout its history, different forms of Gregg shorthand have been published. All the versions use the same alphabet and basic principles, but they differ in degrees of abbreviation and, as a result, speed. The version is generally the fastest and most abbreviated version. Series 90 Gregg has the smallest degree of abbreviation, but it is also generally the slowest standard version of Gregg. Though each version differs in its level of abbreviation, most versions have expert and reporting versions for writers who desire more shortcuts.
Gregg Shorthand was first published in by John Robert Gregg ; however, it was in a very primal stage, and therefore did not gain much success. Five years later, a much better version was published. This version was published in a second edition in , then in a third edition titled "Gregg Shorthand" in The fourth edition, published in , developed more shortcuts. The fifth edition, published in , is the version most commonly referred to as "Pre-Anniversary" Gregg shorthand; this version has the largest number of brief forms, phrases, and shortcuts.
In another version of Gregg shorthand was published. This system reduced the memory load on its learners by decreasing the number of brief forms and removing uncommon prefixes. It was intended to have been published in on the 40th anniversary of the system, but it was published a year afterward due to a delay in its production.
Gregg Shorthand Simplified was published in This system drastically reduced the number of brief forms that needed to be memorized to only Even with this reduction in the number of brief forms, one could still reach speeds upward of WPM. The system was simplified in order to directly address the need of business stenographers, who only needed to produce — WPM transcription.
The creator of an advanced reporting version of Gregg Shorthand, Charles Lee Swem, wrote in The National Shorthand Reporter , "An abbreviated, simplified edition of our system has been published and accepted for the purpose of training office stenographers, and not necessarily reporters. It is fundamentally the same system as we reporters learned from the Anniversary edition.
Once Simplified is learned, the change-over to the reporting style is comparatively simple and can be made by any writer. The Diamond Jubilee series was published through most of the s and the s — It was simpler than the Simplified version, and reduced the number of brief forms to For Diamond Jubilee students who wanted to increase speed for reporting, an edition of "Expert" Diamond Jubilee was available to push speeds upward.
Series 90 — was an even simpler version, which used a minimal number of brief forms and placed a great emphasis on clear transcription, rather than reporting speed. Although it introduced a couple of new abbreviations and reintroduced some short forms that were missing in Diamond Jubilee, it eliminated several other short forms, and was in the main simpler, longer, and slower than the previous editions. Shorthand was dwindling in popularity during this series' usage.
Published in , this is the most recent series of Gregg shorthand. It was the only version since the Pre-anniversary edition of to increase the complexity of the system from the previous one, having brief forms. The above versions of Gregg shorthand were marketed for professional use, such as business and court reporting.
Gregg Shorthand Junior Manual , designed for junior high school students, was published in and The and editions of Gregg Notehand focused on how to take effective classroom and personal notes using a simple form of Gregg shorthand.
With a few customizations, it can be adapted to nearly any language. The Spanish version, designed by Eduardo Vega, is the most popular adaptation.
The Mandarin Chinese version slightly modified the original system, under the name Beifang Suji 'Northern Shorthand '. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Writing portal. New York: Gregg Publishing. Boston: John Robert Gregg. New York: Gregg Publishing Co. Gregg Shorthand Manual Simplified 2d ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gregg shorthand [2d ed. Series Gregg Shorthand for Colleges. Gregg Notehand 2d ed. Course in Isaac Pitman Shorthand.
John Robert Gregg: A Biography. Oxford: The Pre-Raphaelite Press. Dublin: W. Methods of Teaching Gregg Shorthand. New York: Gregg. Gregg Shorthand Adapted to the German Language. Stenografja Polska. Estenografia Gregg. Types of writing systems. History of writing Grapheme. Ideograms and pictograms. Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut. Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs.
Arabic Persian Urdu Pakistan. Algerian Braille obsolete. American Braille obsolete. Accessible publishing Braille literacy RoboBraille. Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode. Internet slang variants. Padonkaffsky jargon Russian Translit Volapuk. Categories : Shorthand systems Court reporting Transcription linguistics.
Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gregg shorthand. Overview History of writing Grapheme.