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Abstract The Grand Ducal Pharmacy, established in Florence under Cosimo I, was managed directly by the Grand Dukes of Tuscany for the duration of the Medici rule until the death of the last member of the Medici family and continued to operate under the Lorraine dynasty for the next years.
Its activity consisted in the production of medical preparations for the Court, its employees, prominent and ordinary citizens. It was not a commercial concern, given the free nature of its activity, and its fame served as an important element of the Medici propaganda. Abstract The text fleshes out the image of physicist Pietro Blaserna, above all from the standpoint of his activity as an organizer and leader of research policies at the turn of the twentieth century.
It also examines his role in the formation of a new institutional status for the field of physics in Italy through his intense work as director of the Institute of Physics in Rome, president of the Accademia dei Lincei, and a key figure in numerous national and international scientific meetings. Abstract The new critical edition, presented here with all its sources, is the consequence of the unexpected discovery of four Persian manuscripts, all concerning the second book of this important treatise on mechanics, which opened unexplored field research and offered new perspectives, both philological and scientific, in interpreting this text.
At the same time, analysis of the work has revealed passages very similar to corresponding passages of works of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei, advancing the possibility that Italian scientists of the Renaissance may have been familiar with all or at least part of Heron's Mechanics. Abstract More than any other philosophic system of the ancient world, the Epicureanism carried out a careful promotional strategy that found its clearest expression in the cult of the Master.
The essays presented in this volume illustrate different aspects of epicurean propaganda — from iconography to literary and archaeological documents — starting from the exploration of the most significant places of worship of Epicurus Athens, Herculaneum, Oenoanda , to episodes of humanistic and modern reception.
This book was externally double-blind refereed. Abstract Metamorphosis is a central theme of ancient literature and mythology, but also appeared in the scientific thought on nature. As a product of forces that escape the laws of nature, prodigious transformation was considered through categories typical of natural transformation, offering an opportunity to investigate the boundary zone between literature and science that in ancient culture was not so clear as it is today.
Abstract What's the relationship between science and metaphysics? How can the scientist's cultural background and the daily life inspire his scientific discoveries? Starting from such questions, the author goes on enlightening some of the most controversial aspects of Niels Bohr's interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.
The author plows on, trying to delineate the process of discovering made by the Danish scientist, by means of epistemological analysis and an accurate historiographical reconstruction.
Abstract This book provides new evidence for the idea that biology, from its modern beginnings, drew on chemistry. Chemistry, the science of material transformations, was born with Lavoisier's revolution. This in turn gave rise to a science of life emancipated from the conviction that living beings were machines moved by a transcendent 'breath of life'. Thenceforth living forms have been seen as part of the physical world, a view still held by biologists. Abstract The author discloses the history of abacus schools and teachers in the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, developing a theme already analysed in some of her previous works.
Based on hundreds of documents, almost all unpublished and kept in archives and libraries of Florence, Prato and Perugia, the essay reconstructs the biographies of ten Florentine abacus teachers of the th centuries, tied by professional relationships and kinship. Abstract The volume offers all the surviving Pronostici by Domenico Maria da Novara, professor of astronomy in Bologna and teacher of Copernico. Scattered throughout many libraries, they are his only remaining writings.
Their transcription comes along with a description of Novara's personality and an analysis of their astrological and astronomical contents. The purpose of this work is to add a contribution to the knowledge of astronomy in the age of Copernico. Abstract The essays included in the volume, originated by the collaboration of philologists and historians of science, try to suggest a new critical perspective on Seneca's Naturales Quaestiones, no more considered a mere compilation by a moralist doxographer, but a complex intertwinement of scientific, philosophical and literary themes that, from antiquity to our days, never ceased to inspire the thought on ethic and the scientific research, and to enrich literary imagery.
Abstract Between and Gianantonio Tadini conducted a series of experiments in Bergamo to prove the Earth's daily rotation. Based on the observation of the deviation of falling bodies, they resumed the experiment designed and performed a few years before in Bologna by Giambattista Guglielmini.
Some unpublished sources allow us now to enrich the general debate on the history of the experiment, reconstructing one of the most important and least-known reproductions of the Bologna experiment.
Abstract The essays presented in this volume aim at illustrating the scientific dimension of Lucretius' poem De rerum natura, whose contents are normally examined from a literary point of view. The philological approach and the stylistic and historical acquisitions applied to a new kind of research result in an interdisciplinary survey which has favoured the contextualization of Lucretius within the history of scientific thought. Abstract This volume is devoted to Anna Morandi Manzolini , a wax sculptor from Bologna, and consists of two parts: a historical introduction tracing the story of this artist and her work within the scientific and institutional context in which she lived and worked; and a collection of original documents, particularly important to better understand how Anna Morandi and her wax figures were received by the scientific institutions of the time.
Abstract The main purpose of this book is to reconstruct the paths followed by mechanical and cosmological ideas in the crucial period between the first exposition of heliocentrism in the De Revolutionibus by Copernicus and the presentation of a new celestial mechanics in the Principia mathematica by Isaac Newton The book is composed of three parts, corresponding roughly to three historical and conceptual periods.
The first part aims at disentangling factors of permanence and factors of transformation from the Middle Ages onwards; the second part focuses on the early reception of Copernicus in different intellectual contexts; the essays in the third and last part are devoted to different interactions between cosmology and the new science of motion. Abstract This book opens new research perspectives by illustrating how the teacher-pupil relationship was real and fruitful in the Italian science context between the 19th and the 20th centuries.
It is the story of students, disciples, assistants, women who, thanks to extraordinary teachers Volterra, Peano, Grassi, Golgi, Levi, Lombroso , gained autonomy, professional maturity and were awarded a chair up to achieving a great ambition, the Nobel Prize. Abstract This volume offers tributes from ten of Paolo Rossi's many colleagues and admirers outside of Italy on the occasion of his eightieth birthday.
They take up several of the topics to which he has made pioneering contributions during his long and distinguished scholarly career: Francis Bacon and the character of seventeenth-century natural philosophy, the history of geology, classifications of knowledge, and other branches of early modern thought. Abstract The problem of the relationship between science and religion has long been the subject of intense historiographic and theoretical debates.
Abstract The female presence in the creation and diffusion of knowledge is manifested by the ever-increasing number of names, discoveries, places and correlations.
Aiming at reinstating a forgotten equilibrium, this volume sets up a gallery of active women in the world of science, both past and present. Arranged in four sections, these papers deal with aspects of Fracastoro's life and with the spread of his thought, focusing particularly on his studies on the nature of contagious diseases, astronomy, natural sciences and the basic aspects of his philosophical speculations gnoseology, psychology, poetics.
Abstract A rich inedited documentation illustrates how the organization model of the Institut, created in France in , was transferred to the Napoleonic Europe: to Italy, Holland and Spain.
The Institut gathered the most illustrious scholars of science, letters and arts, ensuring sites and public financing. An organization model was introduced for the national academies in many countries which is still of reference today. Abstract Most of the literature concerning Louis Pasteur is fundamentally hagiographic, distorted by myths and based on scientists' uncritical accounts exalting his genius.
Here, the author uses the method applied to the study of Claude Bernard by the historian Mirko Grmek: following a strictly evidence-based approach free of all preconceived notions, he has subjected all of Pasteur's works, manuscripts and correspodence to a minute re-examination, from which a new image of this genius and his collaborators especially the shy and reserved Emile Roux emerges. Abstract The author describes the institutional life and research activities of the Italian Thalassographic Committee from its origins to , when it was absorbed by the Italian Research Council Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and thus loosing its autonomy.
Founded in , it was the first state institution in Italy to promote oceanographic research. In keeping with the ideas of its founder, the mathematician Vito Volterra, who promoted closer collaboration of science, technology and production on a national scale, one of its aims was to promote the Italian fishing industry.
Abstract In the historiography of the twentieth century, antiquity - and especially the Roman world - has been considered a period of scientific and technological stagnation, incapable of formulating an idea of progress similar to ours, thus furthering, albeit unconsciously, its own decline.
The author refutes this stubborn historiographical approach, by giving a critical overview of the development of applied and theoretical mechanics in the Hellenistic and Roman era. It was therefore decided to reflect on the characteristics of these spaces and the reason for their existence.
Abstract This volume surveys the historical relations of science and technology by privileging the interaction between the history of glass and the scientific culture of classical Antiquity and the Middle Age. Within this perspective the case of glass has offered an extremely useful example, showing how the development of theories which have often been regarded as the exclusive result of intellectual activities were in fact the result of the progress of glassmaking techniques obtained by artisans.
Abstract The mid 14th century was decisively an active and fruitful period for Parisian academic culture. Abstract This volume is intended as a contribution to that field of the history of ideas called 'geography of learning', with particular attention to the relationships between Italy and German and Scandinavian countries in the course of the first three centuries of the Modern Age.
The contributions discuss cases centered on journeys, correspondences, literary essays and scientific controversies with the aim of capturing the variety and tortuosity of these routes of learning in the Modern Age. Abstract Kepler and Mersenne reach a precise explanation of the structure of the cosmos in terms of divine harmony based on discoveries of the scientific revolution in astronomy, physics and music.
This essay examines several important philosophic and scientific aspects — God, 'supreme architect and musician', the explanatory role of science, debates on eternal truths — and represents an example of the complexity of the theme of harmonice mundi in the seventeenth century. Abstract A publication dedicated to Mara Miniati, to honour one of the internationally-known exponents of reference for her research in the field of scientific instruments and her activity connected with their conservation and evaluation.
An exceptional board of Italian and foreign scholars, distinguished both by their scientific individuality and a role as institutional representatives, testify their gratitude with these twenty-eight contributions.
Abstract Departing from two unpublished manuscripts, this book attempts to revive an extraordinary, albeit little-known, phase of scientific research of the late 18th century, which, from the study of the peculiar properties of some singular fishes through the unpredictable path of science, lead to the discovery of the electric nature of nerve signal and, moreover, to the invention of the voltaic battery.
Besides presenting a crucial transition phase in the natural philosophy of the Enlightenment, this book is written with the goal of reviving a fascination with science and its history. Abstract The study highlights the tension between compositional representation portraying several parts of the body in the same image and dissected representation depicting just isolated parts. Leonardo and other authors prefer a composite iconographical style. Others, such as Vesalio, an analytical one of minute detail.
In the background appears the difficult relationship between the compositional idea of harmony, a fundamental element of the Renaissance period, and anatomy, the naturally analytical branch of science. Hodierna wrote in his youth, the volume reconstructs the theoretical coordinates of the hodiernian line of thought and the close relationships the Sicilian astronomer established with the Southern cultural environment, the Galileian school, and the vast scientific community of the 17th century, which he extolled as the new time for the growth of human knowledge.
Several important historiographic questions, so far discussed amongst scholars, find a more precise formulation in this volume. Abstract This volume presents a critical edition, with a doctrinal introduction, of the Quaestiones de tempore delivered by William of Alnwick, disciple of Duns Scotus.
It is interesting to note that, between and , Alnwick wrote three successive versions of the questiones, which reveal the evolution of his theory, and bear witness to the debate on this topic which occupied the early Scotists. The volume represents an important contribution to studies of medieval thought. Abstract The volume illustrates the various activities of the Jesuit Giambattista Riccioli as a scientist, theologian, philosopher, and man of letters in both local and international cultural and scientific contexts.
A documentary appendix presents some unpublished documents. Abstract A reconstruction of the history of one of the most important scientific institutions of 18th-century Italy. Between violent contrasts and authentic outbursts towards the promotion and diffusion of scientific knowledge, the Florentine institution represented one of the most significant moments in the institutional history of science in the Age of Enlightenment. Abstract This book explores the relationship between physiognomy, anatomy, and art in the oeuvre of Leonardo da Vinci.
Leonardo's research is situated within the chronology of his own production, his broader research into the morphology of the human body, and the heritage of scholastic biology. The author also demonstrates that Leonardo's gradual invention of a physiognomical iconography was difficult because, in contrast to his anatomical and engineering studies, there was no pre-existing tradition on which to draw.
Abstract In the ambit of a debate in Parnaso this work, published in Milano under a pseudonym in , presents and defends Tycho Brahe's anti-Aristotelian opinions. Besides an original application of a suggestive literary form treating scientific contents, the interest in this work pertains to the attention Galileo dedicated to it supported by a reply drafted by his disciple Mario Guiducci. Abstract A collection of papers discussed at the workshop "The Social Role of Sciences ", held in Arezzo in May , examines the aspects and vicissitudes of the history of sciences during those decades that marked deep changes in the sciences with an opening towards the progressive professional development of disciplines and the relationship between scientists, political power, and society.
This bibliography, containing several hundred as yet unpublished references, provides a precious guide for the study of his works and thought. Abstract Cotugno was one of the most important European physicians and scientists between the 18th and the 19th centuries. Besides being the author of fundamental works in the anatomical and physiological field, in he published the treatise Dello spirito della medicina, which became, in the Italian medical culture of the time, the manifesto of Neo-Ippocratism.
Abstract The book is comprised of the treatise on the Compasso published in by F. Mordente, a mathematician at the court of Rudolph II, and a manuscript by Giacomo Contarini on Mordente's compass and other inventions.
The introductory essay runs through the history of Mordente's invention by examining the literary sources that evidence its success before the introduction of Galileo's compass. Abstract The clinical case of Federico III of Prussia, suffering from throat cancer, could not avoid rousing the interest of pathologists and surgeons who, between the 19th and 20th centuries, devoted themselves to the study of the origin and growth of cancerous cells.
Among other things, this august patient's bedside provided the sad scene for confrontation between rival theories, later to be elaborated following the abandon of the formative blastema hypothesis.
Abstract Hobbes' theory of light and vision is the subject of this volume. A close study of texts, above all those still unpublished, reveals how Hobbes' scientific research is centred around his interest for optics and how optics itself became an exemplary model for the development of his mechanistic conception of reality. Abstract Making use of many unpublished documents and manuscripts, this volume examines the history of physical sciences and technology from a theoretical, institutional, economic and industrial point of view in the Kingdom of Sardinia from Prospero Balbo's reform to Cavour's politics.
Abstract This collection of Proceedings of the Convention marking the Third Centenary of Francesco Redi's death constitutes the most organic and representative contribution of the contemporary historiographical research on the image and the work of this scientist and poet from Arezzo.
Abstract During the conference "Journals and History of Science", held in June , the issue of the role of journals in transforming the history of science into an independent historical discipline rather than purely a branch of natural science was greatly discussed by the international scholars in attendance. These essays aim to provide a systematic historical analysis of the literature already available on the basic functions and importance of journals as bearers of institutional organisation.
The Reason of the Elites: Constitutional Moderatism in the Kingdom of Sardinia, 1849–1861
Abstract The Grand Ducal Pharmacy, established in Florence under Cosimo I, was managed directly by the Grand Dukes of Tuscany for the duration of the Medici rule until the death of the last member of the Medici family and continued to operate under the Lorraine dynasty for the next years. Its activity consisted in the production of medical preparations for the Court, its employees, prominent and ordinary citizens. It was not a commercial concern, given the free nature of its activity, and its fame served as an important element of the Medici propaganda. Abstract The text fleshes out the image of physicist Pietro Blaserna, above all from the standpoint of his activity as an organizer and leader of research policies at the turn of the twentieth century. It also examines his role in the formation of a new institutional status for the field of physics in Italy through his intense work as director of the Institute of Physics in Rome, president of the Accademia dei Lincei, and a key figure in numerous national and international scientific meetings. Abstract The new critical edition, presented here with all its sources, is the consequence of the unexpected discovery of four Persian manuscripts, all concerning the second book of this important treatise on mechanics, which opened unexplored field research and offered new perspectives, both philological and scientific, in interpreting this text. At the same time, analysis of the work has revealed passages very similar to corresponding passages of works of Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei, advancing the possibility that Italian scientists of the Renaissance may have been familiar with all or at least part of Heron's Mechanics.
Storia della scienza moderna
Nuncius Library - Studies and texts