Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Leedy, P. With 11 attacks reported for the first quarter of , and 27 attacks in almost three times more than in along the territorial waters of Nigeria thus making her the most affected country. However, it is believed that other coastline countries and areas most affected apart from Nigeria on the Gulf of Guinea comprise Ghana, Togo, Benin and Bakassi.

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It should be noted that all the research designs fall either under qualitative or quantitative approach or both, that is mixed research approach. Quantitative research approach is driven by the researchers with the need to quantify data. It involves a numeric or statistical approach to research design. It is specific in its surveying and experimentation, as it builds upon existing theories.

The methodology of a quantitative research maintains the assumption of an empiricist paradigm Creswell, The research itself is independent of the researcher. As a result, data is used to objectively measure reality. Quantitative research creates meaning through objectivity uncovered in the collected data.

Quantitative researchers seek explanations and predictions that can be generalized to other persons and places. Quantitative research begins with a problem statement and involves the formation of a hypothesis, a literature review, and a quantitative data analysis. The findings from quantitative research can be predictive, explanatory, and confirming.

Qualitative research is an unfolding model that occurs in a natural setting that enables the researcher to develop a level of detail from high involvement in the actual experiences Creswell, There are different types of research designs that use qualitative research approach.

These include case study, ethnography study, phenomenological study, grounded theory study, and content analysis. These five areas are representative of research that is built upon inductive reasoning and associated methodologies. What constitutes qualitative research involves purposeful use for describing, explaining, and interpreting the collected data. Leedy and Ormrod allege that qualitative research is less structured in description because it formulates and builds new theories.

It is an effective model that occurs in a natural setting that enables the researcher to develop a level of detail from being highly involved in the actual experiences Creswell, While the quantitative method provides an objective measure of reality, the qualitative method allows the researcher to explore and better understand the complexity of a phenomenon in a subjective manner.

Although each approach seeks to validate sensory knowledge as truth, neither is absolute in its form and neither is superior to the other. Creswell, J. Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches 2nd ed. Leedy, P. Practical research: Planning and design 7th ed. Johnson, R. Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come.

Educational Researcher, 33 7 ,


Research Approaches: Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches

This easy-to-read manual is for the beginning researcher in any discipline. Practical Research guides the student, step by step, through the research process, from problem selection through writing up results. Ideally suited for self-instruction, the text provides all of the basics necessary to complete an undergraduate or graduate research project in any discipline. It is appropriate as either a primary or supplementary textbook in graduate or advanced undergraduate research courses. Teresa M. McDevitt" is a psychologist with specializations in child development and educational psychology.







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