Prefix coding is variable length coding algorithm. In assigns binary digits to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence. Prefix of the codeword means any sequence which is initial part of the codeword. In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. Given channel with capacity C. The channel capacity of the discrete memory less channel is given as maximum average mutual information.

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SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur. Name of the Staffs. UNIT — 1. State source coding theorem. State channel capacity theorem. State channel coding theorem for a discrete memory less channel. What is prefix coding? Define mutual information and its properties. What is average information or entropy? What is a relationship between uncertainty and information? If X represents the outcome of a single roll of a fair die. What is the entropy of X? A code is composed of dots and dashes. Assume that dashes three times longer than dot and has one third of probability of occurrence.

Calculate average information in the dot-dash code. The signal power require d at the receiver is 0. Calculate capacity of this channel. Give the kraft-Mc millan inequality for the instantaneous code. Define efficiency of the source encoder. Define rate of information tr ansmission across the channel. Define bandwidth efficiency.

Write the properties of information. List out the parameters to evaluate a encoder as efficient encoder. What is shannon limit? ITInformation Theory and coding. A discrete memory less source has an alphabe t of seven symbols whose probabilities of occurrence are as described below Symbol: s0 s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 and probabilities are 0. Encode the following messages with their re spective probability using basic Huffman algorithm.

Calculate the efficiency of coding and comment on the result. Find the channel matrix of the resultant channel. State the channel capacity theorem. Consider that two sources S1 and S2 emit messages x1, x2, x3 and y1, y2, y3 with joint probability p X,Y as show n in the matrix form.

An analog signal having 4 kHz bandwidth is sampled at 1. Assume that the successive samples are statistically independent. Write short notes on:. Binary Communication Channel. Binary symmetric channel. A discrete memory less source has 5 sy mbols x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 with probabilities 0. Construct a Shannon fano code for the source and calculate code efficiency. UNIT —2. Give the principle behind DPCM.

Define statistical encodi ng and differential encoding. What is temporal masking and frequency masking? What is perceptual coding? Give the advantages of perceptual coding. State the advantages of codi ng speech at low bit rates. What is dolBy AC-1? List the advantages of dolby AC Why subband coding is preferred for speech coding? List the three features which determin e the perception of a signal by the ear.

What is the major advantage of the adaptiv e Huffman coding over st atic Huffman coding? Mention two basic properti es of linear prediction. What is quantization noise and on which parameter it depends? Differentiate vocoder and waveform coder? How dynamic Huffman coding is differe nt than basic Huffman coding?

Why is dynamic Huffman coding employed? What is the basic conc ept of linear coding? What is the principle of adaptive Huffman coding? What is the need for compression techniques? Define processing delay and algorithm delay in speech coders.

Explain Run-length encoding. Write short notes on: I Dolby AC — 1 audi o coders. Explain the linear predictive coding LPC mode l of analysis and synthesis of speech signal.

Explain in details about per ceptual coding. Inconnection with perceptual coding, briefly describe the following concepts I fre quency masking. II temporal masking. With suitable example briefly explain stat ic Huffman coding and dynamic Huffman coding. Also compare them. Explain the principles of LPC.

Draw the schema tic of an encoder and decoder, and identify and explain the perception parameters and a ssociated vocal tract excitation parameters. Briefly describe the procedures followed in dynamic Huffman coding. List the different types of lossless and lossy data comp ression techniques Why lossy compression techniques are used for speech, audio, and video. Explain the main components of CELP coder with suitable encoder and decoder block diagram.

Write the formula for quantization wh ich is used in JPEG compression. List the three tokens availa ble at the output of the entr opy encoder in JPEG algorithm. Distinguish between global color table and local color table in GIF.

Mention its main application. What is the need for compression technique s? What do you mean by negative compression? Write two features of TIFF format.

What is known as black-based motion compensation and motion estimation? What is the significance of D-frames in video coding? State the main application of GIF. Why graphical interchange format is extensively used in the internet? What is makeup code and Termination code in digitization of documents? Define I,P,B frames in video. Define DCT and Quantization. Explain the encoding procedur e of I,P and B frames in video coding with suitable diagrams. B With the aid of a diagram, describe the interlaced mode of operation mode of operation.

State and explain the encoding procedure used with the motion vector. Draw the necessary sketches. With suitable block diagram ,briefly e xplain the implementation schematic of H. List the different types of lossless and lossy data compre ssion techniques. C Compare H. A discuss in brief the principles of comp ression. B In the cont ext of compression for text, image, audio and video, which of th e compression techniques discussed above are suitable and why? How are the predictive coded P frames and bi directionally predic tive coded B frames are used to improve compression e fficiency in MPEG-1 algorithms.

Write short notes on: video compression princi ples and technique. UNIT —4. What is error control code?

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## IT2302-Information Theory and Coding

Descubra todo lo que Scribd tiene para ofrecer, incluyendo libros y audiolibros de importantes editoriales. SRM Nagar, Kattankulathur. Name of the Staffs. UNIT — 1. State source coding theorem.

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What is prefix coding? Prefix coding is variable length coding algorithm. In assigns binary digits to the messages as per their probabilities of occurrence. Prefix of the codeword means any sequence which is initial part of the codeword. In prefix code, no codeword is the prefix of any other codeword. State the channel coding theorem for a discrete memoryless channel. Given channel with capacity C.

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## IT2302 Information Theory and coding Important Questions for Nov/Dec 2012 Examinations

Anna University Department of Information Technology. Find a codebook for this four letter alphabet that satisfies source coding theorem 4. A discrete memory less source has an alphabet of five symbols whose probabilities of occurrence are as described here. Compare the Huffman code for this source. Also calculates the efficiency of the source encoder 8. A discrete memory less source has an alphabet of seven symbols whose probabilities of occurrence are as described below. Use the Lempel — Ziv algorithm to encode this sequence.