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Danielou, Hindu Polytheism, New York, , pp. The perceptible world of forms is no more the whole of the cosmos than his visible limbs and organs are the whole of a man […] man and the universe appear as two parallel beings similar to one another… cf. Mundaka up. A Study on Early Advaita, Madras, , p. In this case, the suffix bandhu is included in the names of the four rishis. This can be interpreted as a personification of the ritual powers active during the sacrifice by fire, devoted to the Principle or God of Fire himself.
Mircea Eliade analysed the capital importance in the history of religions of the logic of the symbol as a sort of language that tends to integrate the profane into the sacred and thus sacralise the whole reality. In Vedic India, the sacrifice as a ritual whole and each of its elements had a hidden symbolic 2 Cf.
Tilak, quoting L. Shema, A. Sharma ed. Langlois trad. Gispert Sauch, op. These are his bandhu. As a symbol, it is an indicator of a higher level of reality. This interdependence has to be understood both in its liturgical and its ethical sense, which correspond to the subtle and sensitive levels, respectively.
Between these two forms of the intelligence there is an abysmal difference: while the analogical intelligence has a cohesive, centripetal and integrative aspect, the analytical one fragments reality.
Also, Williams explains it as minute, small, subtle De Smet, op. I, London, , p. Avyakta refers to the body meaning small, minute body , but raises a question: how can a body, which is dense, be called avyakta unmanifested? They refer to the importance of the universal constituents in the concrete World. However none of these notions are new for an Indian trained mind, but are inspiring for the contemporary man who became potentially damaging to himself and his world, the man as an asura, in the sense that Oscar Pujol develops this concept Moreover, the reflection on the subtle world as philosophical, metaphysical and epistemological dimensions32 can provide a contribution to the contemporary world-view.
In this respect, four topics need to be thrown into relief. Wimbush, R. Valantasis ed. Francis Clooney, Thinking Ritually. Oscar Pujol, Naturaleza y Culto, in Ch. Maillard ed. The relevance of ritual34, as the power capable to organize the subtle world, which is the cause of the sensitive, material world.
The material world is the effect, the result, of the subtle dimension. It should be noticed that although the modern man does not understand this process of the vertical causality, it is still operating; therefore, the value of ritual is essential Here the problem is that modern man has lost his symbolic, mythic and ritual capacity. This inability is based on the spiritual crisis of the human being, which in its turn becomes a spiritual obstruction The human being leaves aside the power of ritual, disregards its usefulness for the recovering of the cosmic health in a proper sense.
The existence of the subtle world draws the attention to the continuity and coherence between the ritual dimension and the ethical action In other words, action means sacred action, namely liturgical action in which God and man cooperate in order to accomplish the coming into existence of the realm of being.
This union is related to a more complex explanation of becoming, which includes the analysis of the link between revelation and reason. This analysis is particularly attractive for the modern man, to whom it offers more suitable answers. The human being circumscribed by the contemporary society is deprived of the power to sustain the leap of consciousness from the mind to the faith.
That leap is required when the faith is not strong enough. Francis Clooney, op. Chantal Maillard, El crimen perfecto, Madrid, , p. The traditional and current analyses seem to focus on showing the ultimate ontological unreality of both wake and dream states Therefore these analogies imply that the characteristics inherent in the nature of the U, elevation and intermediacy, apply to the dream-state.
Ordinary dreams or residual dreams, in Freudian terms, place themselves in the position of particular dreams, which belong to the mind and to the experience of being awake, according to the karma of one individual identified with his or her ego On the other side, out-of-common dreams, higher dreams or golden dreams are close to the mythic dimension, and they might be a bridge towards it. Certainly this kind of analysis involves a lot of difficulties, based on the possibility to misunderstand the sub-levels of consciousness which are detailed in 40 Cf.
Panikkar, op. See also Andrew O. Bhatt, Vedic Tantrism. Consequently this level has an intrinsic tension which can provide a karmic resolution, but only by way of asceticism. Incidentally this aspect provides a new angle to compare Indian thought with neo-platonism Finally this kind of dreams, the taijasa dreams, share into another kind of spiritual strength, as Pannikar suggests And this is no utopian ideal, but a spiritual opportunity for creation instead of destruction. Because of this opening, we think the constitution of the higher dreams should be taken into account.
Our reflection leads to an affirmative answer. Yes, there are some world- views in the old Indian philosophy that can be extrapolated with caution, in order to meet the challenges of the contemporary society.
The reconsideration of the subtle world and its connotations is able to improve our self-knowledge and our spiritual path, which concomitantly constitutes the core of the Indian lore. These connotations include the metaphysical level of being as a more integral view of reality , the psychological level of being as the theory of dreams , and the sociological level of being as the understanding of the multiple causes and effects which shape the contemporary society.
Bibliography Primary Sources Langlois, A. Hume, R. Mahadevan, op. Frederick M. Schroeder: Plotinus and Interior Space and S. Caterina Conio, op. Martin, C. Gambhirananda, S. Secondary Sources Albanese, C. Bhatt, M. Danielou, A. Eliade, Mircea, Yoga, Inmortalidad y Libertad. Buenos Aires, Mahadevan, T. A Study on Early Advaita, Madras, Maillard, Chantal, El crimen perfecto, Tecnos, Madrid, Muller, P. Panikkar, R. Radhakrishnan, S. Mar Gregorios ed. Shema, R; Sharma A. Silburn L. Tilak, S. Trungpa, Ch.
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