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By Gary Jobson. It consists of approximately 35, members who wish to further their boating education and who provide administrative, operational, and other support to the USCG. The USCGAUX does not offer on-the water courses to the general public, although such training is made available to members who wish to engage in search and rescue SAR , aids to navigation ATON , and other operational activities that require boat-crew qualification.
Each of the first six parts of this book is divided into two sections, Sailing Knowledge and Sailing Skills. Sailing Knowledge covers terminology, sailing theory, safety, and government regulations-all the things you need to know before going out on the water.
To reinforce what you have learned, you will find review questions at the end of each Sailing Knowledge section. Answers are provided in Appendix A. Questions in the written final Sailing Fundamentals examination cover material from the Sailing Knowledge section of each chapter.
USCGAUX students are not tested on topics covered only in the Sailing Skills sections see below , but are encouraged to read this material as a course supplement and in preparation for later on-the-water training offered by ASA schools. Although this is principally a text about sailing, some of the topics covered in the Sailing Knowledge sections of this book apply to powerboats. If your vessel has an engine as many sailboats do and the engine is in operation-regardless of whether or not the sails are raised-you are considered to be operating a powerboat under the navigation rules and must comply with all regulations applicable to these craft.
Moreover, engine equipped vessels must satisfy other federal and state regulations, such as carriage of additional required safety equipment. The Sailing Skills sections describe exercises and maneuvers designed to teach boat handling. Although the basic principles of sailing are the same for all craft from sailboards to meter yachts, the exercises in this book are designed for a boat of about 14 to 30 feet with at least two people aboard. In practicing each maneuver, switch roles with your fellow crew members so that everyone learns every skill.
Each exercise teaches a particular task. Many of the skills will build upon lessons learned in previous exercises. Each Sailing Skills section is designed to take two to three hours to complete on the water. The ideal way to learn is with the hands-on knowledge imparted by a qualified instructor or experienced sailor.
The sequence of exercises in this book allows for a knowledgeable sailor on board with you, although the book itself can be your instructor. Certain fundamental maneuvers-such as leaving the dock under sail-have purposely been left to later parts.
By that point, your skills will have been developed sufficiently for you to attempt these more complicated maneuvers. We deal only with sailboats in Parts One through Four; we will cover handling a vessel under power in Part Five. Important terms are explained in the text as well as defined in the Glossary beginning on p.
Illustrations or photographs give a more detailed explanation of terms when necessary. Each subject area is explored in increasing depth in subsequent parts as you gain knowledge and develop basic skills. In my early days of sailing I was once sailing a little ten-foot boat on Toms River, a body of water off Barnegat Bay along the coast of New Jersey. It was a particularly difficult day to be out on the water. Not only was the wind strong, but it was frequently shifting direction.
Every time I got settled down on a desirable course, with the sails set at a correct angle to the wind and the boat moving fast, the wind would shift. I often had to make an unscheduled, drastic change in course to keep the sails filled with wind. Sometimes I did not move fast enough, and my boat was left lying stopped in the river with her sails flapping helplessly.
An older friend, named Tom Chapman, was watching from the nearby shore. At the time, Tom was one of the top sailors on Barnegat Bay, but he understood my frustration. Instead of watching in amusement as some people might do, he coached me back to shore, hopped into the boat with me, and gave me some good advice.
First, he said, you must understand where the wind is coming from. Before I head out, I stand on the shore and simply look at wind indicators. I look at flags on shore and on boats.
I study the direction that water ripples blow in, and I watch other boats that are out sailing. The next thing I do is plan in advance where I want to sail. Say I want to sail from here to that island. He pointed into the wind. To get started, I push off, pick the first course, get sailing at 45 degrees to the wind, and adjust the sail so it catches the wind just right, without flapping.
When a boat is sailing that close to the wind, the sail should be pulled in quite far, until it is right over the boat. He pointed directly downwind. That means that the sail should be adjusted so it is way out over the water at about a right angle to the boat.
As you can see, the way I adjust the sail depends entirely on the course I choose. Tom and I pushed off and sailed out into the river. I decided to sail toward the island upwind, so I headed about 45 degrees to the wind and pulled the sail in close. Tom resumed coaching. I watch what the wind is doing to my sail, he said, and adjust the course so I stay at that degree angle.
I should change my course to get back to that degree angle. I spend about half my time watching the water beyond the bow of my boat so I can try to understand what the wind will do. I try to remember what I observed while I was on shore, but I also learn through experience.
For example, if the wind shifts 20 degrees to the left side, it will ripple the water at a new angle. Whenever I see that kind of ripple on the water, he said, pointing and adjusting our course, I anticipate another wind shift to the left. On the way back to shore, Tom had one last bit of advice.
So keep the sheet the rope leading to the sail in your hand so you can adjust it whenever the wind changes direction. I was learning how to sail. In this first lesson, the parts of the boat and the two most frequently used knots are introduced.
Upon completion of this part you will be able to raise the sails, come about, jibe, and leave the boat in shipshape fashion after a sail. Recreational boats are designed to use one or more of three propulsion types. Self-propelled vessels, including kayaks, rowboats, rafts, and canoes, are designed to be propelled by people using paddles, oars, or poles.
Power-driven vessels powerboats typically use gasoline or diesel motors for propulsion. Powerboats may be subdivided into several types, including utility boats prams, skiffs, dinghies, inflatables, and utility outboards , runabouts bowriders, open fishermen, center consoles , cruisers trawlers, houseboats, larger sportfishing vessels , pontoon boats, and personal watercraft PWC.
Each type has certain uses, characteristics, and limitations. Utility boats, for example, are used as tenders for larger craft and as platforms for fishing and hunting in protected waters. Because utility boats are generally small with limited stability, boaters should enter them carefully to avoid overloading. Caution should also be exercised when moving within these boats to avoid tipping them over. Runabouts are generally fast, maneuverable craft, used for fishing, hunting, cruising, and waterskiing.
Cruisers are generally larger, more seaworthy except for houseboats craft, equipped with berths sleeping areas , a head marine toilet , galley marine kitchen , and other facilities necessary for living aboard.
Powerboats are subject to particular navigation rules and have specific responsibilities under those rules. They are highly maneuverable, fast, fun-to-operate, low-cost, power-driven jet drive craft capable of operation in very shallow water.
Many PWC are designed for one person, but larger models are available for use by two or three people. PWC are not toys and are governed by navigation rules applicable to power-driven vessels.
In addition, most states and many localities have established specific laws that regulate PWC activities, such as prohibition of night operations, speed limitations, prohibitions of specific activities e.
These popular craft have unique operating capabilities e. For example, PWC are steered by altering via handlebars the direction of the jet drive, and if power is not applied, steering is lost the so-called off-throttle steering problem. Operators who are unfamiliar with this design feature may have difficulty controlling the vessel. PWC are designed for operation in relatively calm waters, have limited fuel capacity, and are not stable or very maneuverable at slow speeds.
PWC operators often focus their attention on nearby waves or wakes, which can impair their ability to maintain a proper lookout. Operators of other vessels should exercise caution when operating in the vicinity of PWC to minimize the likelihood of collision.
The ability to swim and knowing how to reboard a PWC from the water are also essential. Many PWC are equipped with engine kill switches rigged to shut the engine off if the riders are thrown from the craft. Fuel management is very important for PWC. Not all PWC are equipped with fuel gauges. Weight and balance are important for PWC operators. Finally, it is important that operators of PWC as well as other craft display environmental sensitivity.
Operations in shallow water areas may disturb a fragile ecosystem and its inhabitants. This can be both a matter of courtesy and regulation. Many sailboats are also equipped with gas or diesel motors for use either as primary or supplemental power when winds are light or from the wrong direction, for docking or other precise maneuvering, and for operation in waters e. A sailboat is a power-driven vessel, as defined in the navigation rules, when the motor is in operation, and must observe regulations applicable to this type of vessel.
When powered solely by sail, a sailboat is termed a sailing vessel and is subject to other specific regulations and because of its limited maneuverability enjoys certain privileges under the navigation rules. Various types of sailboat are discussed later in this text. They are one-person craft, so the skipper operates the sail, steers, and acts as lookout. Visibility on these high-speed craft may be limited when the operator is positioned behind the sail.
Skippers of other craft should understand this limitation and exercise caution when operating in the vicinity of sailboards.
The hull is the basic boat minus the rigging. The hull comprises the bottom, topsides, buoyancy tanks, and deck.
By Gary Jobson. It consists of approximately 35, members who wish to further their boating education and who provide administrative, operational, and other support to the USCG. The USCGAUX does not offer on-the water courses to the general public, although such training is made available to members who wish to engage in search and rescue SAR , aids to navigation ATON , and other operational activities that require boat-crew qualification. Each of the first six parts of this book is divided into two sections, Sailing Knowledge and Sailing Skills. Sailing Knowledge covers terminology, sailing theory, safety, and government regulations-all the things you need to know before going out on the water. To reinforce what you have learned, you will find review questions at the end of each Sailing Knowledge section. Answers are provided in Appendix A.
Free book Sailing Fundamentals by Gary Jobson. The official learn-to-sail manual of the American Sailing Association, it is also used in the programs of many yacht clubs, colleges, and sailing groups. Unlike most introductory sailing books, which reflect the biases and idiosyncrasies of their authors, Sailing Fundamentals has been extensively pretested by ASA professional instructors to ensure that it offers the fastest, easiest, most systematic way to learn basic sailing and basic coastal cruising. This book covers every aspect of beginning sailing—from hoisting sail to docking and anchoring—and specifically prepares the learner to qualify for sailing certification according to international standards. He was head sailing coach at the US Naval Academy, and has conducted sailing clinics across the country.