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I also want to thank Ulises Juan Zevallos-Aguilar and Ana Del Sarto for their willingness to accompany me in this project, and Fernando Unzueta for classes which gave me the insight I needed into the cultural production of nineteenth-century Latin American literary foremothers.
My special thanks go to Terrell Morgan, who stepped into the breach and made possible the success of my IRB application. For her kind help with Italian translation, Marie Orton also deserves my appreciation. I am therefore very much indebted to the women readers who have offered me their reflections on how the experience of reading can motivate spaces of female self- definition and bonding among women.
Without their generous help and thoughtful comments, my work would have remained at a purely theoretical and speculative level. In this connection, I extend my deep gratitude and affection to my dear colleague, friend, and mentor, Mireya Usera, whose prompt, tireless, and exact efforts were instrumental for obtaining access to this group of women readers in Uruguay.
On a more nostalgic, yet quietly reverberating note, I will always be thankful for the love and the smile of Fritz Kuhlemann, my father. Narrow Listening Activities: Materiales para los estudiantes. ISBN: Alma B. Daniel C. Maltzman Pelta. Montevideo: D. Maltzman, Introduction……………………………………………………………… 1 1. Reader Theory and Developing Bonds of Reading…………………..
Situating the Fiction of Marcela Serrano……………………………… 51 3. In short, the texts and my personal experiences were interwoven in my reading processes, in such a way that I was reading for a lived-through encounter with my books.
What happens when gender is introduced as a variable into the interaction between text and reader? Therefore, in which terms can the engagement of women readers with bestsellers be more productively described? Is it possible for women to draw on them to articulate standpoints of female self-definition? Born in Santiago de Chile in , Marcela Serrano has become a potent voice in the Chilean literature of the last decade of the twentieth century and the early twenty-first century.
Serrano enjoys a broad fan base not only domestically but also internationally, particularly in Argentina, Uruguay, Mexico, and Spain3 Ossa Budge In addition, her works have been translated into Italian eight titles , German three , Dutch two , French two , Polish two , Portuguese two , English one , Finnish one , Hebrew one , Korean one , Russian one , and Turkish one.
Existing 2In addition to her novels and short stories, Serrano has published a storybook for children, El cristal del miedo , co-authored with her daughter Margarita Maira Serrano. Felman4 between writer and women readers, and among women readers themselves. For Felman, the bond of reading enacted by the sharing and exchanging of female stories theoretical perspectives, autobiographies, and literature, interacting with each other among women is an act of empowerment which allows women to access their own missing stories , , , Chapter two lays out a targeted and critical overview of mainstream reader-response theories, and then narrows focus to specifically feminist models of reading, so as to establish the tools needed to describe, analyze, and interrogate the fiction of Marcela Serrano in terms of a praxis of consciousness- raising, as well as the responses her works can evoke among women readers.
These tools are applied for these purposes in chapters four and five. The chapter closes with a description of the target female audience that Serrano seems to have in mind when she writes, induced from recurrent demographic and behavioral patterns found among her protagonists. This instrument has been designed as an empirical counterbalance to the more overtly theoretical claims posited elsewhere in the dissertation. Ya sea desde las abuelas hasta los hijos. Collins , , which can be discussed and appropriated in the midst of a community of women.
In sum, I am interested in exploring how a feminist approach to reading that foregrounds connections among women can be articulated. Among critics there is consensus that reader-response5 theory represents no unified movement or critical position Guerin et al. Reader-response theories can be seen, to a large extent, as a reaction against the formalistic approaches to literature that prevailed in literary criticism for almost half a century6, which view texts as autonomous artifacts and make them the centers of inquiry, claiming that meaning and value reside in the formal aspects of texts, and rejecting the role of the reader as meaning maker, for fear of falling into subjectivism Guerin et al.
However, the latter is the most popular one, prevailing thus in most accounts of reader-oriented criticism Rabinowitz , and therefore it is the one I adopt for this study. Richards in the s, and in those of Louise Rosenblatt in the s, for instance.
By the s, criticism that focused on the interaction between reader and text started gaining momentum as a movement of sorts and rallied forces against formalism Guerin et al. For a discussion about the different positions of reader critics organized according to topics i. Taken to its logical extreme, reader-response theory would imply that there are as many meanings in a text as there exist readers of it or, for that matter, the very impossibility of reading at all, as deconstructive approaches to reading would have it.
Thus, reader-response criticism may serve as a healthy counterbalance to literary dogmatism Rabinowitz ; Guerin et al. Although Iser explicitly theorizes the process of reading as an interaction between text and reader, the author8 as 7 The first two subsections of this chapter lay out the frameworks of those critics aligned with reader- response theory whom I have chosen to include in the present dissertation, and indicate the rationale for this choice.
Subsection 2. Instead, he offers schemata, all of which invoke possibilities of description, only to reject them again. In this sense, Iser approaches literature from a functional standpoint of communication: fiction is a means of communicating something, and the text and the reader are partners in this communication process, the effect of the text on the reader, as recipient of the message, being the function of literature Act One instance of how this operation unfolds can be found at the level of the story where, for example, a new chapter may denote abrupt changes caused by, for example, the introduction of a new character.
The effect of such a negation on a reader is of even greater significance. By way of example, a character that a reader believes to be subject to particular norms of behavior, but who, without warning, behaves in a manner that undercuts these expectations, serves to disorient the reader with respect to the norms, and to place the reader in a situation that requires resolution. Whereas Iser focuses on literature more in terms of communication, the process of meaning-making taking place as the reader confronts the unknown in the text, psychoanalytic critic Norman Holland places the emphasis rather on literature as a subjective experience that an individual reader has with a text Dynamics xxiii-xxiv , which can be characterized in terms of identification.
Holland breaks down this process by proposing his DEFT model of perception, an acronym that stands for Defenses, Expectations, Fantasies, and Transformations. The reader has characteristic psychological defensive tactics for coping with the world D , and general expectations E about how the world works, what books of the genre in question are like, etc.
This ongoing interaction of reader and text permits the reader to transform T fantasies into themes that have meaning for the reader, and thus a reader-specific experience of reading is arrived at, i. An interesting sidelight that Holland considers on a limited scale is the way that writers can, and hypothetically do, exploit identity themes that they predict their audiences might have in choosing material for their texts.
Holland starts with the more overtly manipulative genres of propaganda and advertising, but sees some potential for such experimentation in terms of the identity themes of readers more generally as well Their lack of commitment to political and communal principles and values is also an important limitation when exploring projects of empowerment.
In this respect, Bleich invokes the work of Margaret Donaldson, who shows that learning occurs in a context of personal relationships, the work of Colwyn Trevarthen and Penelope Hubley, who propose that structures of inter- subjectivity underlie structures of intelligence, and the work of Maureen Shields, who argues that thought is primarily enacted in dialogue, and that the affective nature of interpersonal relations contributes to mental development.
For Bleich, therefore, intersubjectivity is the matrix that allows for the interweaving of the cognitive and the affective. These individual interactions with the text encourage readers to acknowledge and monitor their feelings as they read, and to make personal connections with what they find in their reading, with the goal of achieving greater insights into their personalities and values Feelings , For a full description of his theory and praxis of reading as a subjective process in classroom settings, consult his Readings and Feelings: An Introduction to Subjective Criticism.
The following section addresses such feminist intersubjective models of reading. In this respect, feminist critics began to raise the issue of gender in relation to reading during the s, regarding whether women and men read in different ways Leitch 47 , and how social and cultural differences of gender, sexual orientation, and eventually class and ethnicity, affect the activity of readers Schweickart and Flynn, Introduction The importance of the work undertaken by feminists at the intersection of reader-response criticism may be appreciated, for instance, in how these critics open up the field of literature to political inquiry.
In this connection, the emphasis is more towards challenging traditional interpretations that are consistent with patriarchal values and towards making readers, especially women, aware of the implications of such interpretations for gender relations, rather than simply explaining how interpretations arise, while hiding behind a facade of gender neutrality.
Greater complexity is also ascribed to the interactions that women readers have with mass culture literature than what hegemonic academic interpretive practices are willing to concede. Taking reader-response out of academe and into the hands of professional, middle-class, adult, white women has been a concern for Anne G. Berggren, who conducted interviews with nine women regarding their life-long experiences of reading popular as well as canonic literature and what this reading meant to them According to Berggren, for female readers who read like a woman, the line between their lives and the works they read tends to become blurred.
These readers read for pleasure as well as to acquire knowledge about themselves and about how they relate to their environment as women. These women readers feel a sense of personal connection with the works they read14 , which allows them to use female characters as models for their behavior , , and as sources of validation and empowerment in order to challenge patriarchal gender roles and to embark on non-traditional paths15 , Fetterley above.
On the basis of this safe space of legitimation, women readers may feel more encouraged to actively whose background or profession resembles their own, thus allowing them to reflect on their own personal or work lives Janice A. Between and , Radway conducted group and individual interviews with sixteen romance book buyers from a bookstore in a mid-western region of the United States, as well as administered a survey questionnaire to forty-two women customers of said bookstore This space of pleasurable involvement also allows women readers to experience an increase in self-esteem as they engage, for instance, in learning experiences such as simulated traveling, which provides them with factual knowledge that justifies, both in their own eyes and in those of their families, their reading activities Reading the Romance Fiction serves these readers as a mental and emotional preparation for the stay in the unfamiliar location These instances of collective reflection on female protagonists and characters serve to break the isolation some women live in as a result of focusing on their family lives, and enable them to derive, via the circulation of books among the members of the group, strategies to cope with gender issues that impact their own lives ; recall Berggren above These female communities stemming from the act of romance reading challenge the metaphorical equation of reading to consumption in the sense of exhaustion, showing that buying and selling is not the whole story for either readers or writers.
These aspects are brought forth for analysis in chapter five. Schweickart offers a model for feminist readings of texts written by women which further explores this connection between women readers and women authors. In this respect, Schweickart highlights the attitude Rich has toward her subject, conceptualizing it in terms of three metaphors.
In this section, I lay out relevant issues that are addressed in detail in subsequent chapters, and I show how the reader theories described above work together to treat these issues. In this regard, reading in relation to a group of fellow readers can foster a collective negotiation of truth that is relevant for that particular community.
This factor also prompts the treatment of such communally-defined meanings of bestsellers with respect, rather than dismissing them as errors of un der trained readers. Responses to my survey indicate that these women readers tend to seek after the familiar when they enter a new text.
Similarly, in an attempt to appeal to a target audience, a writer may deliberately include themes that she predicts will resonate with the concerns of her readers, capitalizing on the DEFT dynamic. Likewise, they express interest and affection with respect to this writer Radway, Berggren. This impression of kinship, which I believe arises primarily, if not entirely, in relation to a mental representation of the author that readers form by virtue of their reading, is in the case of some of the respondents conducive to motivating them to appreciate or to attempt other life options.
The responses to these different inquiries did not all point in the same direction, however. Whereas a number of seminar participants advocated for the legitimacy of calling the Nueva Narrativa a movement in its own right, others insisted on considering it purely the result of marketing operations, initially launched by the publishing house Planeta through its Biblioteca del Sur collection in the nineties, and continued by Alfaguara and Grijalbo cf.
Nosotras que nos queremos tanto
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Nosotras Que Nos Queremos Tanto Marcela Serrano Descargar PDF