Gastrodiscoides is genus of zoonotic trematode under the class Trematoda. It has only one species , Gastrodiscoides hominis. It is a parasite of a variety of vertebrates , including humans. The first definitive specimen was described from a human subject in
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Gastrodiscoidiasis is an infection that is usually asymptomatic and affects the small intestine. It is caused by a trematode fluke named gastrodiscoides hominis. You can find this large flatworm mostly in small villages in a state in the Northeast corner of India called Assam. Gastroiscoides hominis is usually found in animals pigs , but when it infects humans can cause serious health problems and even mortality. It is also known as a Digenean Fluke which is a subclass of platyhelminths that consists of over parasitic flatworms that affect mostly the digestive tract.
Although gastrodiscoidiasis is not seen as a serious health threat yet, it is not an infection to take lightly. Gastrodiscoidiasis was first brought to attention in by J. In a paper titled, Observations on Gastrodiscoides hominis and Fasciolopsis in Assam , Buckley described the life cycle and prevalence of the disease in the state of India Assam.
Later in life, it was Buckley who was responsible for the formal classification of this parasite. While this parasite is typical found in pigs, it can also affect humans. Usually the infection is asymptomatic but occasionally it can also cause intestinal problems such as diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, colic, and an increase in mucous production.
In severe cases, where there may be large amounts of eggs present, tissue reactions can occur in the heart or mesenteric lymphatics. This parasite has not been reported in Nigeria and possibly other parts of Africa. This is a case report of a seven year old Nigerian child who presented with features of malnutrition and anaemia and was found to have Gastrodiscoides hominis and Ascaris lumbricoides.
Following clearance of the worms there was tremendous improvement of the health status of the child. The detailed epidemiology of this parasite still remains to be studied in this environment. Gastrodiscoides Hominis is passed through the feces in egg form where it can come into direct contact with the water supply or vegetation or it is used as "night soil".
This parasite is then usually transmitted through the ingestion of vegetation found in contaminated water such as water caltrop where the parasite tends to reside after leaving its intermediate host the snail. It can also be transmitted after eating infected fish that has not been cooked properly or at all. Humans are considered an accidental host because the parasite can survive without the existence of man.
However, the snail intermediate host is necessary in the development of the parasite. Hominis are passed in feces unfertilized usually into some kind of water source where they are ingested by the snail intermediate host. The eggs hatch and release miracidium which develop from there into the sporocyst stage followed by one or more generations of redia. Finally, the redia transform into the cercarial stage which have a "keeled" tale. This entire process occurs in under 20 days typically.
These metacercaria can attach to vegetation where "night soil" is used or remain in the fish. The parasite travels through the GI tract into the duodenum then continues down the intestine where it self-fertilizes.
It then moves to the cecum and ascending colon where it attaches and lays hundreds of eggs. Finally the eggs are passed through the feces. The diagnosis is made through examination of the feces and detection of G.
Hominis eggs. Only after several digestions of the parasite can the higher levels be detected because the patient begins to present the symptoms mentioned before. There have not been any other tests made at this time. There is no exact timing on the incubation period because most of the cases are asymptomatic, but it is estimated that it takes a few days for the parasite to move through the entire GI tract and finally reach the cecum.
The treatment for G. Hominis is similar to those of M. It works to flush the flukes from the colon which removes the parasite entirely since it does not reproduce within the host.
Some drugs that have been proven effective are tetrachlorothyline given 0. Hominis can be found in Vietnam, Philippines, Bangladesh, and most commonly in the Assam state of India. It is prevalent in areas that use "night soil" like in Southeast and Central Asia. A few cases have been documented in Nigeria. Prevention of this disease is not difficult when simple sanitary measures are taken. Also, all food should be washed thoroughly using filtered water and proper techniques to dispose of waste should observed.
Buckley, J. Observations on Gastrodiscoides hominis and Fasciolopsis in Assam. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int J Parasitol, Oct;35 Weisher, B. An Introduction to Nematodes: General Nematology. Sofia , Bulgaria : Pensoft Publishers, Sarah Scheller, , scheller stanford.
Scott Smith, ssmith stanford. Pigs, Monkeys, Rats, Fish, and other fish-eating animals. Hominis is a reddish-colored amphistome with a ventral sucker located in the posterior end. The anterior region is narrow and ends with a rounded tip. The posterior region contains the reproductive organs including an ovary in the shape of an oval located under the 2 lobed testes. The testes are found below the gut ceacae and are in front of the the vitellaria that surround the intestinal caecae.
The eggs are a greenish-grey color and rhomboidal in shape. The entire egg is about x mm in size.
Gastrodiscoides Hominis Infection in a Nigerian-case Report
Gastrodiscoidiasis is an infection that is usually asymptomatic and affects the small intestine. It is caused by a trematode fluke named gastrodiscoides hominis. You can find this large flatworm mostly in small villages in a state in the Northeast corner of India called Assam. Gastroiscoides hominis is usually found in animals pigs , but when it infects humans can cause serious health problems and even mortality. It is also known as a Digenean Fluke which is a subclass of platyhelminths that consists of over parasitic flatworms that affect mostly the digestive tract. Although gastrodiscoidiasis is not seen as a serious health threat yet, it is not an infection to take lightly.