SubChapter : Efek Fotolistrik 1. A coin that has a threshold energy 2 eV irradiated with monochromatic light with a wavelength of until electron leaving the metal surface. An electron moving at 0. If the electron quiescent's mass 9. So, the kinetic energy of the electron that is. Light with a wavelength of nm radiate metal's surface that the work function is 1.

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No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Gauge Institute Journal Vol. Vic Dannon vick adnc. Electron diffraction seems to hsupport that Hypothesis. But then, the electron at rest will haveinfinite wavelength, and infinite wave phase velocity. This says thatfor a material particle, the de Broglie relation does not hold.

Failed attempts to save the postulate, kept the flawed relation, andmodified the waves into train waves, pilot waves, probabilitywaves,… to name a few. We keep the de Broglie waves unchanged,and modify the relation. Vic DannonFinally, we observe that reinstating the matter wave, String theoryavoids Uncertainty. For a material particle, the relation 5 does not hold. Where did de Broglie go wrong?

Einstein emphasized the particle nature of the electromagnetic energy,and the Compton effect, and the Bohr atom amplified the particlenature of light even further. But the photon equation 7 describes precisely, and exclusivelyelectromagnetic radiation.

A non-electromagnetic wave, as de Broglie thought of his wave,cannot satisfy the Planck equation that characterizes uniquelyelectromagnetic radiation energy. Not a matter wave, Not a pilot wave. Can we replace the incorrect relation 5 with a physically believablerelation? Now, 7 8. Vic DannonWe proceed to establish relation Electrons and UncertaintyIn the Davisson-Germer experiment [5], electrons with energy of electron-Volts were shot at a Nickel crystal.

The detector could be moved along a track, so that reflection wouldcome from various crystal planes. X-rays and UncertaintyX-rays were produced first by Rontgen in , as the result ofdecelerating electrons in a metal plate target.

X-rays were notdeflected by electric and magnetic fields, and were determined to carryno charge. Thus, they were suspected to be electromagnetic radiation.

Because of their energy, their frequency would be high, their wavelength short, and diffraction would require gratings with shortdistance. The planes of atoms in a crystal are spaced at such shortdistance, and can serve as diffraction gratings. The suggestion to use crystals, was made by Max Von Laue in The experiments by Friedrich and Knipping yielded uncertainties of 0.

X-rays did prove to be electromagnetic radiation in two otherexperiments: 14 Vic DannonThe first is the X-ray spectrum that is cut off at a given voltage V. The second experiment that proves that X-rays are photons is theCompton effect in which an X-ray particle collides with an electron. That is, aparticle of electromagnetic energy. Since X-rays are photons, the uncertainty equals their wavelength.

X-rays wavelength is determined in crystal diffraction. Vic DannonThe Strings postulate reinstates the matter wave by having the particleitself vibrate in its uncertainty region. In that region, the energy andthe momentum of the particle are unknown, and the trajectory of theparticle cannot be determined. The string postulate cannot be confirmed, or denied because noexperiment may apply to the uncertainty region.

In particular, vibrations in a region where physics cannot bequantified, need not lead to any physical results, whatever the numberof unseen space dimensions may be.

There is no way to replace the uncertainty inherent in the quantumtheory with certainty, anymore than there is a way to replace thequantum hypothesis with wave theory.

In fact, we may sum up thefoundations of the quantum theory as the combination of the Planck-Einstein quantum hypothesis, and the de Broglie-Heisenberguncertainty relations.

Uncertainty is a fundamental property of thequantum theory. Thus, it should not be surprising that the result of avoidinguncertainty, and reconstructing quantum theory without it, leadsnowhere. The failure of this exercise in avoiding uncertainty,reaffirms how fundamental the Heisenberg Uncertainty relations are. For instance, one such possibility is that theequation is wrong at the singularity. References 1. Halsted Press Wiley Rousseau, M. Flint, H. Davis, and J.

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