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The Liturgy of the Hours Latin : Liturgia Horarum or Divine Office Latin: Officium Divinum or Work of God Latin: Opus Dei or canonical hours , [a] often referred to as the Breviary , [b] is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer". Together with the Mass , it constitutes the official public prayer life of the Church.
The Liturgy of the Hours also forms the basis of prayer within Christian monasticism. Celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours is an obligation undertaken by priests and deacons intending to become priests, while deacons intending to remain deacons are obliged to recite only a part. The Liturgy of the Hours, along with the Eucharist , has formed part of the Church's public worship from the earliest times.
Within the Latin Church , the present official form of the entire Liturgy of the Hours is that contained in the four-volume publication Liturgia Horarum , the first edition of which appeared in English translations were soon produced and were made official for their territories by the competent episcopal conferences. The three-volume Divine Office , which uses a range of different English Bibles for the readings from Scripture, was published in ; the four-volume Liturgy of the Hours , with Scripture readings from the New American Bible , appeared in The Lutheran counterpart is contained in the liturgical books used by the various Lutheran church bodies.
Other names in Latin liturgical rites for the Liturgy of the Hours include "Diurnal and Nocturnal Office", "Ecclesiastical Office", Cursus ecclesiasticus , or simply cursus.
The General Instruction of the Liturgy of Hours in the Roman Rite states: "The public and communal prayer of the people of God is rightly considered among the first duties of the Church. From the very beginning the baptized 'remained faithful to the teaching of the apostles, to the brotherhood, to the breaking of bread and to the prayers' Acts 2 Many times the Acts of the Apostles testifies that the Christian community prayed together.
The testimony of the early Church shows that individual faithful also devoted themselves to prayer at certain hours. In various areas the practice soon gained ground of devoting special times to prayer in common. Early Christians were in fact continuing the Jewish practice of reciting prayers at certain hours of the day or night. In the Psalms are found expressions like "in the morning I offer you my prayer";  "At midnight I will rise and thank you";  "Evening, morning and at noon I will cry and lament"; "Seven times a day I praise you".
The Apostles observed the Jewish custom of praying at the third, sixth, and ninth hours, and at midnight Acts , 9; ; etc. The Christian prayer of that time consisted of almost the same elements as the Jewish: recital or chanting of psalms, reading of the Old Testament, to which were soon added readings of the Gospels, Acts, and epistles, and canticles.
By the time of Saint Benedict of Nursia , the monastic Liturgy of the Hours was composed of seven daytime hours and one at night. This arrangement of the Liturgy of the Hours is described by Saint Benedict. However, it is found in Saint John Cassian 's Institutes and Conferences ,  [ failed verification ] which describe the monastic practices of the Desert Fathers of Egypt.
The distinction, already expressed in the Code of Rubrics ,  between the three major hours Matins, Lauds and Vespers and the minor hours Terce, Sext, None and Compline has been retained. All hours, including the minor hours, start with the versicle from Ps 70 69 v. Deus, in adiutorium meum intende. Domine, ad adiuvandum me festina" God, come to my assistance; Lord, make haste to help me , followed by the doxology. The Invitatory is the introduction to the first hour said on the current day, whether it be the Office of Readings or Morning Prayer.
The opening is followed by a hymn. The hymn is followed by psalmody. The psalmody is followed by a scripture reading. The reading is called a chapter capitulum if it is short, or a lesson lectio if it is long. The reading is followed by a versicle. The hour is closed by an oration followed by a concluding versicle.
Other components are included depending on the exact type of hour being celebrated. In each office, the psalms and canticle are framed by antiphons , and each concludes with the traditional Catholic doxology. The character of Morning Prayer is that of praise; of Evening Prayer, that of thanksgiving. Both follow a similar format:. In addition to the distribution of almost the whole Psalter over a four-week cycle, the Church also provides appropriate hymns, readings, psalms, canticles and antiphons, for use in marking specific celebrations in the Roman Calendar , which sets out the order for the liturgical year.
An Invitatory precedes the canonical hours of the day beginning with the versicle "Lord, open my lips. Unless the Invitatory is used, each Hour begins with the versicle "God, come to my assistance. Each Hour concludes with a prayer followed by a short versicle and response.
Matins or the Office of Readings is the longest hour. Before Pope Pius X's reform , it involved the recitation of 18 psalms on Sundays and 12 on ferial days. Pope Pius X reduced this to 9 psalms or portions of psalms, still arranged in three "nocturns", each set of three psalms followed by three short readings, usually three consecutive sections from the same text.
Pope Paul VI's reform reduced the number of psalms or portions of psalms to three, and the readings to two, but lengthened these. On feast days the Te Deum is sung or recited before the concluding prayer. After St. Pius X's reform, Lauds was reduced to four psalms or portions of psalms and an Old Testament canticle, putting an end to the custom of adding the last three psalms of the Psalter — at the end of Lauds every day.
The number of psalms or portions of psalms is now reduced to two, together with one Old Testament canticle chosen from a wider range than before.
After these there is a short reading and response and the singing or recitation of the Benedictus. Vespers has a very similar structure, differing in that Pius X assigned to it five psalms now reduced to 2 psalms and a New Testament canticle and the Magnificat took the place of the Benedictus.
On some days in Pius X's arrangement, but now always, there follow Preces or intercessions. In the present arrangement, the Lord's Prayer is also recited before the concluding prayer.
Terce, Sext and None have an identical structure, each with three psalms or portions of psalms. These are followed by a short reading from Scripture, once referred to as a "little chapter" capitulum , and by a versicle and response.
In monasteries and cathedrals, celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours became more elaborate. Served by monks or canons, regular celebration required a Psalter for the psalms, a lectionary for the Scripture readings, other books for patristic and hagiographical readings, a collectary for the orations, and also books such as the antiphonary and the responsoriary for the various chants.
These were usually of large size, to enable several monks to chant together from the same book. Smaller books called breviaries a word that etymologically refers to a compendium or abridgment were developed to indicate the format of the daily office and assist in identifying the texts to be chosen.
These developed into books that gave in abbreviated form because they omitted the chants and in small lettering the whole of the texts, and so could be carried when travelling. By the 14th century, these breviaries contained the entire text of the canonical hours. The invention of printing made it possible to produce them in great numbers. In its final session, the Council of Trent entrusted to the Pope the revision of the breviary.
Using language very similar to that in the bull Quo primum , with which he promulgated the Missal — regarding, for instance, the perpetual force of its provisions — he made it obligatory to use the promulgated text everywhere. He totally prohibited adding or omitting anything: "No one whosoever is permitted to alter this letter or heedlessly to venture to go contrary to this notice of Our permission, statute, ordinance, command, precept, grant, indult declaration, will decree and prohibition.
Should anyone, however, presume to commit such an act, he should know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. It is obvious that he did not thereby intend to bind his successors. Urban VIII made further changes, including "a profound alteration in the character of some of the hymns.
Although some of them without doubt gained in literary style, nevertheless, to the regret of many, they also lost something of their old charm of simplicity and fervour. Many of the complicated rubrics or instructions that governed recitation of the Liturgy were clarified, and the actual method of praying the office was made simpler.
Prime had already been abolished by the Second Vatican Council. Of the three intermediate Hours of Terce, Sext and None, only one was to be of strict obligation. Recitation of the psalms and a much increased number of canticles was spread over four weeks instead of one.
By a personal decision of Pope Paul VI against the majority view of the revising commission,  three imprecatory psalms 58, 83, and were omitted from the psalter and some similar verses were omitted from other psalms, as indicated in the heading of each.
These omissions, lamented by Joseph Briody,  are attributed in the General Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours to "certain psychological difficulties, even though the imprecatory psalms themselves may be found quoted in the New Testament, e. Rev , and in no way are intended to be used as curses". The current typical edition is the Liturgia Horarum, editio typica altera , promulgated in printed between and , and reprinted in This uses the Nova Vulgata Latin Bible for the readings, psalms and canticles rather than the Clementina.
It has changed the text of some of the readings and responsories in line with the Nova Vulgata, and it provides the Benedictus and Magnificat on each Sunday with three antiphons that reflect the three-year cycle of Gospel readings.
Verse numberings are added to the Psalms and the longer Scripture readings, while the Psalms are given both the Septuagint numbering and in parentheses that of the Masoretic text. New texts, taken from the Missale Romanum , have been added in an appendix for solemn blessings and the penitential acts. Thus far, this second Latin typical edition has only been translated in the "Liturgy of the Hours for Africa" The earlier edition has appeared in two English translations, one under the title "Liturgy of the Hours", the other as "The Divine Office".
In the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, bishops, priests, and deacons planning to become priests are obliged to recite the full sequence of the hours each day, observing as closely as possible the associated times of day, and using the text of the approved liturgical books that apply to them.
Laity, especially if they are involved in ministries of the Church lector, cantor, extraordinary minister of Holy Communion, catechists, religious education directors or school principals, altar servers, those contemplating religious life or the seminary , are strongly encouraged to participate. The constitutions of some institutes of consecrated life, in particular many congregations of Benedictine monks and nuns, but also others, oblige them to follow an arrangement of the Psalter whereby all the psalms are recited in the course of a single week, partly through an extension of the Office of Readings, and by maintaining the Hour of Prime.
The canonical hours stemmed from Jewish prayer. This "sacrifice of praise" began to be substituted for the sacrifices of animals. In Roman cities, the bell in the forum rang the beginning of the business day at about six o'clock in the morning Prime, the "first hour" , noted the day's progress by striking again at about nine o'clock in the morning Terce, the "third hour" , tolled for the lunch break at noon Sext, the "sixth hour" , called the people back to work again at about three o'clock in the afternoon None, the "ninth hour" , and rang the close of the business day at about six o'clock in the evening the time for evening prayer.
The healing of the crippled man at the temple gate, occurred as Peter and John were going to the Temple to pray Acts at the "ninth hour" of prayer about three pm.
The decision to include Gentiles among the community of believers, arose from a vision Peter had while praying at noontime, Acts —49 the "sixth hour".
The early church was known to pray the Psalms Acts —30 , which have remained a part of the canonical hours. By 60 AD, the Didache recommended disciples to pray the Lord's Prayer three times a day; this practice found its way into the canonical hours as well.
Pliny the Younger 63 — c. By the second and third centuries, such Church Fathers as Clement of Alexandria , Origen , and Tertullian wrote of the practice of Morning and Evening Prayer, and of the prayers at terce, sext, and none. The prayers could be prayed individually or in groups. By the third century, the Desert Fathers began to live out St.
Paul's command to "pray without ceasing" 1 Thessalonians by having one group of monks pray one fixed-hour prayer while having another group pray the next prayer.
As the format of unbroken fixed-hour prayer developed in the Christian monastic communities in the East and West, longer prayers soon grew, but the cycle of prayer became the norm in daily life in monasteries.
By the fourth century, the characteristics of the canonical hours more or less took their present shape.
Liturgia de las Horas. Diurnal
There is also the one from St. Any suggestions on a breviary? I am looking for some English and Latin, not too expensive, and something that takes a reasonable amount of time. Thanks for all your help! If you get this, be sure and visit this blog that has an Ordo and a primer on using the MD: saintsshallarise. If you want something less time-consuming but with Latin-English in a traditional Office, you could go with this:.
The Liturgy of the Hours Latin : Liturgia Horarum or Divine Office Latin: Officium Divinum or Work of God Latin: Opus Dei or canonical hours , [a] often referred to as the Breviary , [b] is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer". Together with the Mass , it constitutes the official public prayer life of the Church. The Liturgy of the Hours also forms the basis of prayer within Christian monasticism. Celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours is an obligation undertaken by priests and deacons intending to become priests, while deacons intending to remain deacons are obliged to recite only a part. The Liturgy of the Hours, along with the Eucharist , has formed part of the Church's public worship from the earliest times. Within the Latin Church , the present official form of the entire Liturgy of the Hours is that contained in the four-volume publication Liturgia Horarum , the first edition of which appeared in English translations were soon produced and were made official for their territories by the competent episcopal conferences.
Libros Litúrgicos Conferencia Episcopal Española
Liturgia de las horas pdf
The liturgical customs of these Orders technically belong to the Roman Rite. Monastic office usages based on the liturgical code in the Rule of St. Benedict, flourished and multiplied, however. After the Second Vatican Council, the Latin texts are listed either as editio typica , or in the more recent second edition, as editio typica altera Current official English ediitions of liturgical texts are given a " concordat cum originali ". The same was true for the interim temporary version of the new office. This timeline listing makes no claim at completeness.