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Some are linked to Russia, others to one or another political party or group. Hacking, or breaking into servers and computers, goes back at least to the early s. As a tool of espionage, it was inevitable that political parties, parliaments and candidates would eventually be hacked too. First used on a wide scale by Wikileaks to publicize stolen US State Department cables, doxing has become a tool of political campaigns.

In the recent US and French elections, doxing was used by one group to embarrass the opposing side. Russian hackers breached both Republican and Democratic servers but only released information on the Democrats. In France, no emails from the Front National, the far-right French party were doxed. These are new techniques, at least at this massive level of dissemination. Kompromat, the Russian term for compromising material, real or not, has been a staple of political action for centuries.

Yet only with the advent of social media, has kompromat found widespread distribution and no less important, redistribution via social media shares. Social acceptance of purloined correspondence is also changing. It is difficult to imagine that the media would have accepted or publicized physically stolen correspondence, had the Watergate break-in in been successful.

As the US election showed, publishing purloined digital correspondence created no ethical dilemmas, even for the New York Times.

Certainly the effect on electoral democracy has been profound. Moreover, the effects may not be felt in democratic elections themselves but in how governments react to perceived threats, that is by imposing limits on free expression. It is imperative, however, that we explore the issue, with honesty and candor.

If something was patently false, ridiculous or unverifiable, the broader public never saw it. Even when the story eventually did reach the European press, it never gained traction, other than as an example of Soviet disinformation. The public sees an article in something that looks like a news site. In an ambitious study by BuzzFeed, which examined the consumption of fake news shared on Facebook in the three months before the US election, the data showed that the top performing fake news stories generated 8.

That compared to 7. We can add to this the Pew Study from last year which found that two-thirds of Americans rely on social media for at least some of their news, and a more recent Dartmouth study showing that The problem with drawing conclusions from these numbers is that it is extremely difficult to judge the actual impact of this massive disinformation effort. Research is relatively recent, concern over the issue is new.

The studies have been inconclusive, although it is clear that false stories do get shared and retweeted on a large scale. It is the last tendency, this call to legislate fake news, where the two pillars of liberal democracy — elections for the orderly transition of power and constitutionally guaranteed freedom of expression — increasingly come into conflict. This conflict is likely to become more serious in coming years.

Because of its own history with extremism, Germany has always been particularly strict on hate speech. Social media makes it more so. But there are even graver problems. Illiberal regimes typically cherry-pick and copy-paste sections of Western legislation to avoid criticism that their own regimes were too heavy-handed. Pressure to regulate fake news will increase.

Some countries — the US, Estonia consistently ranked No. But it is not clear how long this will continue if governments see a threat to democracy or even to centrist parties currently in office.

Germany, after all, in was ranked in fourth place in internet freedom, just behind the US and Canada. The assumption, of course, is that the more something is seen, the more likely it will be believed. The hashtag Syriahoax appeared immediately after news of a Syrian chemical gas attack and at one point was retweeted by a single source every five seconds. Automated bots and human-assisted accounts — from within both the US and Russia — attacked Republican Senator John McCain after he criticized President Trump for his response to the violent Charlottesville protests.

In my view, Twitter itself has not been particularly forthcoming in addressing these concerns. Again, as with news stories, the unanswered question remains their efficacy. While Twitter bots can attract a fair bit of attention in the Alt-Right press, we still cannot say how much they affect political discourse or the outcome of elections.

Big Data. Research by a PhD student at Cambridge University, Michal Kosinski, demonstrated that Facebook likes provided a highly useful source for a personality assessment of Facebook users called OCEAN, which stands for: openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism.

Cambridge Analytica initially said it used the OCEAN test — considered the best of its kind — in its work with both the Trump campaign and the Leave campaign, leading up to the Brexit referendum in the UK. Their stance has shifted quite a bit, from boasting to laying low. Big data analytics can provide a granular view of voter concerns and political leanings, which in turn provides a new way to target voters in political campaigns.

This is precisely what Cambridge Analytica originally claimed regarding both the Leave or Brexit campaign as well as the Trump campaign.

Later, either due to legal, privacy or simply political reasons Cambridge Analytica and its affiliates walked back the original claims.

Currently it is not possible to tell which claims are true and which are not. Dark Ads. Since the beginning of electoral politics, campaigns have relied on speeches, ads and commercials that were visible to all of the electorate. This new technology with its finely granular approach, for the first time allowed campaigns to tailor ads to individual voters. People by now are accustomed to seeing ads related to their previous internet searches; one could say this merely represents the extension of a new advertising technology to the political sphere….

When ads are public, they are open to criticism, as they have been throughout history. Facebook now says it will make all ads on its platform public, not just political ads, and is preparing to make that change. Unfortunately, it is unclear what impact these ads had on the political process before this change was announced. Facebook initially maintained its policy for political ads is the same as for commercial advertising and refused to publish the ads, their frequency, those who the ads targeted, or the audience size.

Under pressure, it has now rethought those views. Voters and the press reporting on candidates are entitled to know the whole picture. With the dramatic convergence of social media and election technology, debate about these issues is outpacing our knowledge of what is taking place. Or will they wait for enough facts before enacting what seems to be the inevitable regulation of social media, beginning in Europe. How long will governments wait as they see a continuation of meddling in public discussions through social media?

I suspect not for long, as we have already seen in the case of Germany. This may be the direction liberal democratic governments take with social media companies — deeming them too big, too powerful, potentially too threatening for politicians to tolerate. This already has become a major issue for Facebook, Twitter and other media in the liberal world. Elsewhere, where there is no electoral democracy, there is no debate. Toggle navigation. Electoral Democracy vs. Freedom of Expression It is the last tendency, this call to legislate fake news, where the two pillars of liberal democracy — elections for the orderly transition of power and constitutionally guaranteed freedom of expression — increasingly come into conflict.

Currently it is not possible to tell which claims are true and which are not Dark Ads. People by now are accustomed to seeing ads related to their previous internet searches; one could say this merely represents the extension of a new advertising technology to the political sphere… Except… The targeted political ads of the US presidential and UK referendum, were not public. Quo Vadis?

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Some are linked to Russia, others to one or another political party or group. Hacking, or breaking into servers and computers, goes back at least to the early s. As a tool of espionage, it was inevitable that political parties, parliaments and candidates would eventually be hacked too. First used on a wide scale by Wikileaks to publicize stolen US State Department cables, doxing has become a tool of political campaigns. In the recent US and French elections, doxing was used by one group to embarrass the opposing side. Russian hackers breached both Republican and Democratic servers but only released information on the Democrats.

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