Odontomas are the most common benign odontogenic tumor Figures 8 and 9. Abnormal proliferation of cells of the enamel organ, they give rise from the odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme that produce enamel and dentin. There are two types of odontomas: compound and complex. A compound tumor represents multiple toothlike structures, where a complex odontoma has irregularly shaped masses of enamel amorphous showing no anatomic resemblance to a tooth. The tumor consists of multiple hard tissues, e.
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Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation.
The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.
Odontomas are an abnormal mass of calcified dental tissue, usually representing a developmental abnormality. The term is now used to denote leasions that contain all the dental tissues and includes two types, the complex and the compound odontoma. Most of these structures do not morphologically resemble the teeth in the normal dentition; however, enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp are arranged as in the normal tooth.
Odontomes are the most frequently occurring odontogenic tumors in the oral cavity, and are considered to be hamartomas rather than true neoplasms.
These cells and tissues can appear either normal or be deficit in structure. The level of differentiation may vary, creating various formations of dental tissues enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp. The tissues may form non-descript masses of dental tissues known as complex odontomas to multiple, well-formed tooth like structures known as compound odontomas.
The mean age of detection on an average is A 14 year old male patient reported for orthodontic treatment. Patient had maxillary protrusion and wanted orthodontic treatment for the same. A complete intraoral and extraoral examination was carried out. Further, an OPG was advised. The radiographic picture revealed the presence of multiple radio opaque tooth-like structures between the roots of 13 and 14, surrounded by a narrow radiolucent zone [ Figure 1 ].
Adjacent teeth appeared normal without any displacement or resorption. A provisional diagnosis of compound odontome was made. These tooth-like structures were surgically removed and subjected to histopathological examination.
Macroscopically, these hard tissue bits were 3 in number and measured approximately 1 cm each in length [ Figure 2 ]. They appeared yellowish-white in color and were hard in consistency. A part of the specimen was studied by making a ground section. On microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosion H and E stain section, normal appearing enamel spaces, dentin and pulp tissue were seen, and they were exhibiting a regular relation to one another.
Presence of cementum was not evident [ Figure 3 ]. Ground section revealed normal tooth architecture. Dentinal tubules and abundant interglobular dentin was seen.
Cementum was sparse and seen in isolated distribution [ Figure 4 ]. Orthopantomogram showing multiple radio opaque tooth-like structures present between the roots of 13 and 14, surrounded by a narrow radiolucent zone. Odontomas are commonly encountered in the first and second decades of life, and are accepted as developmental anomalies hamartomas rather than true neoplasms.
Several theories have been proposed, and various causes including trauma, infection, family history and genetic mutation have been postulated. Some investigators have suggested that the ameloblastic fibroma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma both developmentally and histo-morphologically represent the early stages of formation of odontomes.
Most odontomes are asymptomatic, and radiographic findings are by and large diagnostic. Usually, the compound odontoma appears as a collection of tooth-like structures surrounded by a narrow radiolucent zone.
In our case, the diagnosis was further confirmed with the aid of histopathology. Occasionally, they may become large and produce expansion of bone with consequent facial asymmetry. Odontomes must be surgically removed, in order to prevent cyst formation and possible conversion to odonto-ameloblastoma. Most odontomas are discovered accidently, thus further supporting the use of radiography as an indispensable tool in routine dental clinical examination.
I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Dr. Vijay Kabre Department of Orthodontia for all his help and guidance. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Contemp Clin Dent v. Contemp Clin Dent. Meghana , and Sandip R.
Sandip R. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin.
Keywords: Compound odontoma, hamartoma, odontogenic tumor. Introduction Odontomas are an abnormal mass of calcified dental tissue, usually representing a developmental abnormality. Case Report A 14 year old male patient reported for orthodontic treatment.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Gross specimen of the surgically removed odontomas showing three tooth-like structures. Figure 3. Figure 4. Discussion Odontomas are commonly encountered in the first and second decades of life, and are accepted as developmental anomalies hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Acknowledgment I would like to extend my sincere thanks to Dr. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil.
References 1. Philipsen, Richart PA. Revision of the edition of the WHO histological typing of odontogenic tumors —A suggestion. J Oral Pathol Med. Neville, Damm, Allen, Bouquet. Odontogenic cysts and tumors. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology; pp.
Dental odontomas: A retrospective study of cases. Clin Pediat Dent. Shafer, Hine, Levy. Shafer's Textbook of Oral Pathology. In: Rajendran R, Sivapathasundharam B, editors.
Cysts and tumors of odontogenic origin. New Delhi: Elsevier; Bilateral complex odontomas in mandible. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. To EW. Compound composite odontome associated with impacted canine. Case report. Aust Dent J. Budnick SD. Compound and complex odontomas. Oral Surg. Surgical and orthodontic management of compound odontoma without removal of the impacted permanent tooth. Review of 61 cases of odontoma. Presentation of an erupted complex odontoma.
Compound Odontoma: Differential Diagnosis and Review of the Literature
The odontoma is a benign tumor containing all the various component tissues of the teeth. Odontomas are considered to be developmental anomalies hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Based on the degree of morphodifferentiation or on the basis of their resemblance to normal teeth, they are divided into compound and complex odontomas. The compound odontoma is composed of multiple, small tooth-like structures.
Large Complex Odontoma of Mandible in a Young Boy: A Rare and Unusual Case Report
An odontoma , also known as an odontome , is a benign tumour  linked to tooth development. It includes both odontogenic hard and soft tissues . As with normal tooth development, odontomas stop growing once mature which makes them benign . The average age of people found with an odontoma is Though most cases are found impacted within the jaw there are instances where odontomas have erupted into the oral cavity. There are two main types: compound and complex.