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PURPOSE: To describe a new combined myopia and glaucoma visual field classification system in order to report the visual field defects in a population of mostly young Chinese high myopes aged years. The predefined classification definitions covering high myopia and glaucoma categories were: normal, enlarged blind spot, abnormal suspect and abnormal with nine subtypes.

Two independent graders reviewed the first of fields for initial grading calibration and the remaining fields were used to assess intergrader agreement. For the percentage distribution of visual fields, the repeats and unreliable fields were excluded, leaving fields. Among the unique fields, the most common visual field was normal at The per cent of 'arcuate-like' field defects combining nasal step, early arcuate and advanced arcuate was A total of These subjects are being followed prospectively to assess which ones will progress to differentiate myopic from glaucomatous field defects.

Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer RNFL thickness was measured using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The topographic relationships between structure and function were investigated. Frequency doubling technology performed well in terms of structure-function correlation in glaucoma with PFS. After reviewing more than cases diagnosed or referred to us as AZOOR or AZOOR complex, we assembled 30 cases that fit our current definition; 48 eyes with a median age at diagnosis of 47 years age range, years and a mean follow-up period of 39 months.

Twenty patients were female. Eighteen patients had initially been seen with bilateral lesions, mostly asymmetric 4 cases were symmetric. Most patients had no remarkable medical or ocular history. RESULTS: Each patient was initially seen with visual symptoms of photopsia and scotoma, and most had a detectable lesion in the fundus evident clinically or detected on multimodal imaging.

The clinical appearance of the AZOOR lesions varied depending on their duration and location, but some features were characteristic, including a demarcating line of the progression at the level of the outer retina and a trizonal pattern of sequential involvement of the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and choroid, as well as frequent zonal progression.

Advanced cases of AZOOR demonstrated disruption of the inner and outer retina and severe damage or loss of the retinal pigment epithelium and the choroid. The patients were followed for years. METHODS: Three readers independently evaluated 10 visual fields from patients and classified visual field abnormalities into 21 different monocular categories representing 3 general types of visual loss: diffuse, localized, and artifactual.

Classification frequency was determined and reader agreement was evaluated. The association of visual field abnormality classifications with mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, visual acuity, and foveal threshold was assessed.

During years 1 through 15, the affected and fellow eyes exhibited predominantly localized loss in the nerve fiber bundle region partial arcuate, paracentral, and arcuate defects. At year 1, At year 15, Foveal threshold was highly correlated with visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in the affected eye at baseline AIM: To classify the classic patterns of glaucomatous visual field defects on automated perimetry and to study their proximity to fixation.

Classically described patterns of visual field defects were identified on the pattern deviation plot and definitions proposed. Interreader agreement between 3 independent not involved in the classification readers was determined. Proximity to fixation of the different patterns was assessed. One hundred ten eligible visual fields were scored with the system adopted by the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study and were categorized into 4 groups accordingly: mild, moderate, severe, and end-stage.

Each hemifield was divided into the nasal, paracentral, and arcuate areas, and field loss that involved respective areas was defined as nasal step, paracentral scotoma, and arcuate scotoma. The mean deviation MD was compared among the 3 areas within one hemifield and between each pair of corresponding areas across the median raphe. In the moderate group, field loss involving both the nasal and arcuate areas dominated the superior hemifield, whereas field loss involving all three areas dominated the inferior hemifield.

The MD of the nasal area was the worst among the three areas in each hemifield of the mild and moderate groups, as well as in the inferior hemifield of the severe group all P The purpose of this retrospectively study is to compare the results obtained using the unquestionable criteria, recommended by American Academy of Ophthalmology versus the minimum criteria proposed by HODAPP. The first are founded on the degree of the depth of the deficits in dB, the second take into account the statistically significant loss.

One hundred glaucomatous visual fields screened with the Humphrey perimeter, with program , are retained for their correct indices of reliability, a MD better than dB, and experience of the automated perimetry.

This population was divided into two groups of index MD greater than -6 dB. And index MD between -6 and dB. The deficits were analyzed on the graph of individual deviation. Conversely the frequency of arcuate scotoma increased. The isolated deficits decreased with the MD aggravation, but even when the deficit was mild, they accounted for already less than half of the cases. Most of the associated deficits were located in the hemifield opposite to the principal defect. The minimum criteria of the classification of glaucomatous visual field defects proposed by HODAPP appear more specific than the unquestionable criteria of the AAO, and also appear easier to use.

Un total de ojos fueron evaluados. Se utilizo el analizador computarizado de campos visuales humphrey. Del total de pacientes, 63 por ciento correspondieron al sexo femenino y 37 por ciento masculino. METHODS: Searching for a simple and reliable method for determination of an alternating central scotoma we used a pair of synoptophore fusion images, in the center of which we added the letter F respectively L as central control signs.

A spontaneously perceived and persisting E means a perfect and stable orthophoria. A persisting F or L with fusion of the images means a one sided central scotoma.

Alternation of F and L with fusion of the images means an alternating central scotoma. RESULTS: By examining normal readers, untreated asthenopic and untreated dyslexic patients, we found mostly rapid alternation of F and L in the latter two groups, whereas most of the normal readers saw F, L and E alternating at longer intervals. On the other hand a rapidly alternating central scotoma may be considered as an important factor causing reading difficulties.

Auras of visual aberrations as well as other neurological disturbances including somatosensory and perceptual symptoms that precede a headache distinguish migraine with aura classic migraine from migraine without an aura common migraine and other varieties of headache.

Visual auras that characterize migraine with aura can be classified and distinguished from other neurologic and psychiatric causes of visual aberrations. Examples of migraine visual auras, which are often described but rarely shown in the medical literature, are presented and their mechanism is discussed. All atypical nerve fibre bundle defects NFBD were selected and all myopes. Atypical NFBD were found in only a few non-myopes but in a large number of myopes. It is difficult to predict the existence of an atypical defect from optic disc evaluation.

Br J Ophthalmol ; 12 : , Dec. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 57 2 : , Feb. Representation of Disease: What's in a Name? Odaibo, Stephen Gbejule. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy: a classification based on multimodal imaging. Two types of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy differentiated by dark- and light-adapted perimetry. Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 58 2 : , Mar. Visual field profile of optic neuritis: a final follow-up report from the optic neuritis treatment trial from baseline through 15 years.

Arch Ophthalmol ; 3 : , Mar. Classifying patterns of localized glaucomatous visual field defects on automated perimetry. J Glaucoma ; 16 1 : , Jan. Patterns of visual field defects in chronic angle-closure glaucoma with different disease severity. Ophthalmology ; 10 : , Oct. J Fr Ophtalmol ; 22 7 : , The purpose of this retrospectively study is to compare the results obtained using the unquestionable criteria, recommended by American Academy of Ophthalmology versus the minimum criteria proposed by HODAPP.

Safra, D. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 5 : , May. Migraine visual auras. A medical update for the psychiatrist. Kaufman, D M ; Solomon, S. Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 14 3 : , May. Myopia and glaucoma. Greve, E L ; Furuno, F.

Doyne Memorial Lecture, Correlation of optic nerve and visual field defects in simple glaucoma. Drance, S M.


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