We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Proper throwing mechanics may enable an athlete to achieve maximum performance with minimum chance of injury. While quantifiable differences do exist in proper mechanics for various sports, certain similarities are found in all overhand throws.
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Proper throwing mechanics may enable an athlete to achieve maximum performance with minimum chance of injury. While quantifiable differences do exist in proper mechanics for various sports, certain similarities are found in all overhand throws. One essential property is the utilisation of a kinetic chain to generate and transfer energy from the larger body parts to the smaller, more injury-prone upper extremity. This kinetic chain in throwing includes the following sequence of motions: stride, pelvis rotation, upper torso rotation, elbow extension, shoulder internal rotation and wrist flexion.
As each joint rotates forward, the subsequent joint completes its rotation back into a cocked position, allowing the connecting segments and musculature to be stretched and eccentrically loaded. Most notable is the external rotation of the shoulder, which reaches a maximum value of approximately degrees.
This biomechanical measurement is a combination of true glenohumeral rotation, trunk hyperextension and scapulothoracic motion. Near the time of maximum shoulder external rotation ERmax , shoulder and elbow musculature eccentrically contract to produce shoulder internal rotation torque and elbow varus torque. Both the shoulder and the elbow are susceptible to injury at this position.
At ball release, significant energy and momentum have been transferred to the ball and throwing arm. After ball release, a kinetic chain is used to decelerate the rapidly moving arm with the entire body. Shoulder and elbow muscles produce large compressive forces to resist joint distraction.
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Full-text links Cite Favorites. Abstract Proper throwing mechanics may enable an athlete to achieve maximum performance with minimum chance of injury. Escamilla RF, et al. Am J Sports Med. Epub Oct 2. PMID: Post EG, et al. J Athl Train. Epub Mar Improper trunk rotation sequence is associated with increased maximal shoulder external rotation angle and shoulder joint force in high school baseball pitchers.
Oyama S, et al. Epub Jun Keller RA, et al. Sports Health. Epub Jan Shoulder muscle recruitment patterns and related biomechanics during upper extremity sports.
Sports Med. PMID: Review. Show more similar articles See all similar articles. Jildeh TR, et al. Orthop J Sports Med. Joint pain and osteoarthritis in former recreational and elite cricketers. Cai H, et al. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. Kim YO, et al. Epub Sep 4. Erickson BJ, et al. Christoffer DJ, et al. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med.
Show more "Cited by" articles See all "Cited by" articles. References Clin Orthop Relat Res. Publication types Review Actions. Biomechanical Phenomena Actions. Energy Transfer Actions. Female Actions. Humans Actions. Kinetics Actions. Male Actions. Rotation Actions. Torque Actions. Full-text links [x] Springer. Copy Download.
Biomechanics of Overhand Throwing with Implications for Injuries
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Barrentine and Rafael F. SummaryProper throwing mechanics may enable an athlete to achieve maximum performance with minimum chance of injury.
Biomechanics of Overhand Throwing With Implications for Injuries
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