AYESHA JALAL THE STATE OF MARTIAL RULE PDF

Amid a strong buzz that the Army is manipulating the elections, the professor of history predicts an Imran Khan-led coalition will win. The history of democracy in Pakistan raises the question: why is it vulnerable to Army rule, directly or indirectly, in sharp contrast to India? Ever since President Pervez Musharraf resigned in , the Pakistan Army has refrained from ruling directly, preferring to control politics from behind the scene. Is this change in strategy a consequence of the amendment of the Constitution, which made abrogation, subversion or suspension of the Constitution high treason and denied the judiciary the right to decide on it? Constitutional provisions have not deterred the Pakistan Army from intervening in the past. In recent decades, partly because of the uneven results of military rule and also deepening polarisation, the Army high command has preferred to influence decision-making from outside the established political system instead of assuming state power.

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Amid a strong buzz that the Army is manipulating the elections, the professor of history predicts an Imran Khan-led coalition will win. The history of democracy in Pakistan raises the question: why is it vulnerable to Army rule, directly or indirectly, in sharp contrast to India? Ever since President Pervez Musharraf resigned in , the Pakistan Army has refrained from ruling directly, preferring to control politics from behind the scene. Is this change in strategy a consequence of the amendment of the Constitution, which made abrogation, subversion or suspension of the Constitution high treason and denied the judiciary the right to decide on it?

Constitutional provisions have not deterred the Pakistan Army from intervening in the past. In recent decades, partly because of the uneven results of military rule and also deepening polarisation, the Army high command has preferred to influence decision-making from outside the established political system instead of assuming state power.

What could be better than to have all the powers and no responsibility? Political polarisation is not just between political parties, it also involves elements the Army has used, over the years, to support its regional policies with other neighbours.

We know that in this election, there are several religious extremist groups whose members are contesting. So the amendment is a weak weapon in the arsenal of the political class in its long battle for supremacy with the Army.

Power in Pakistan does not flow from any constitutional amendment but from the actual functioning balance between elected and non-elected institutions. The amendment of represents an aspiration that is still to be actualised. What is power? The story of Pakistan and the dominance of the military should also explain why other institutions are weak.

Why, unlike in India, has the Army come to play such an important role in Pakistan? The reasons are historical and structural. When Pakistan was created, it got a financial structure that was On top of it, with Kashmir and all the problems with India, the Army emerged dominant because it was able to hook up with the international capitalist system, America in particular.

They also got on to various security alliances [formed because of Cold War politics post-World War II] that tipped the balance against politicians. Responsible Commenting We look forward to hearing your comments about this article. Please be respectful of the author and fellow readers.

Search this site:. July 25, [Scroll. The scale of manipulation is shocking, not the act itself. After all, Pakistan has had three long spells of direct Army rule. Even during periods of civilian rule, the generals have kept politicians on a tight leash.

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The State of Martial Rule: The Origins of Pakistan's Political Economy of Defence

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The State Of Martial Rule: The Origins Of Pakistan's Political Economy Of Defence

Ayesha is married to Indian historian and politician Sugata Bose. Born in Lahore in , [4] Ayesha Jalal studied at Wellesley College before moving to Trinity College , Cambridge [1] [4] where she received her doctorate in She moved to Washington, D. In , she joined Tufts University as a tenured professor. The bulk of her work deals with the creation of Muslim identities in modern South Asia. Therefore, she is related to the renowned Urdu fiction writer Saadat Hasan Manto.

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