For more than one term or phrase, the plural is quae videre qq. Re in re means "in the matter of", or "concerning". Often used to prefix the subject of replies to memoranda and latterly, emails. Nominative case singular 'res' is the Latin equivalent of 'thing'; singular 're' is the ablative case required by 'in'.

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This picture dates from ca. Place e. Use a comma after e. The punctuation mark before e. Do not use etc. Norway has many historic sites, e.

Restrict the use of ead. If used in the main text, ead. This abbreviation stand for et alii and other people , ot et alia and other things. Used to complete the list of three or more authors of published work. Note that the verb is in plural form. Felker et al. In formal writing, etc. In lists containing humans, use et al. Never end a list introduced by e. All domesticated animals — dogs, cats, birds, etc.

Restrict the use of ibid. It is usually followed by a page number. Restrict the use of id. It should not be used as ibid. If used in the main text, id.

It is usually enclosed in commas. At the last meeting, the committee decided, i. Use a comma after i. The punctuation mark before i. It is wrong to use i. The elections will take place in September; i. My problems are, mutatis mutandis, very much like yours. Smith, op. It is different from i. Spain, Moldova, Germany, and Sweden, showed great talent and professionalism. Used between two choices or to contrast two things.

Often used in headlines and titles. Efficiency vs.


Digging Up the Latin Roots of 14 Abbreviations

About Latin terms and abbreviations Despite the fact that Latin is no longer the international language of scholars, bits and pieces of it can still be found scattered around. Some of these bits are very common and are even seen in non-academic writing, while others are much more obscure. Simply knowing what an abbreviation stands for and how to translate the underlying Latin words does not necessarily tell you how the abbreviation is used in actual modern practice. These little remnants of Latin have had a long and colorful life separated from their original language and context.


List of abbreviations of individual words

Ancient History and Latin Expert M. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. Gill Updated May 17, In this list of common Latin abbreviations you'll find what they stand for and how they're used. The first list is alphabetical, but the definitions that follow are linked thematically. For instance, p.

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