The southern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous unicinctus is a species of small armadillo from South America. The upper body is covered by a dark grey bony carapace of squarish scutes. In the mid part of the body, this carapace is divided into a series of ten to thirteen mobile rings, giving the animal some degree of flexibility. Although there are some bristly hairs around the margins of the scutes, the tail and underside of the animal are hairless. The armour covers the back of the neck and extends onto the head between the ears. Smaller and thinner scales are also found on the cheeks and the outer surface of the ears.
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New records of the southern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous unicinctus unicinctus Linnaeus, Cingulata: Dasypodidae in Brazil. Novos registros do tatu-de-rabo-mole Cabassous unicinctus unicinctus Linnaeus, Cingulata: Dasypodidae no Brasil. The geographic distribution of Cabassous unicinctus is poorly known due to the low number of available records. Two subspecies with distributions limited by the Amazonas River were recognized in Cabassous u.
This study aimed to update the distribution records of C. We compiled records from literature, museum collections and field studies. These records enlarge a geographic distribution of C. Armadillos of the genus Cabassous Mc Murtrie, are widely distributed, occurring from southern Mexico to Argentina Wetzel et al.
Four species are currently recognized: C. This genus is the second largest in number the species, surpassed by the Dasypus genus. Members of this genus have carapace very flexible with a variable number of movable bands usually eleven , and a rounded tail that may be unarmored or partially armored with scattered, small scutes and scales Wetzel , In addition to these negative factors, there are problems related to mis-identifications of holotypes and the provenance of some Cabassous specimens deposited in museum collections.
The only taxonomic review of this genus was done by Wetzel Using qualitative comparisons and statistical analyses, this author reorganized the confusing taxonomy and grouped the numerous synonyms into four species, distinguished two subspecies within C. The two subspecies were separated by these characters: C.
Otherwise, C. However, Wetzel did not examine any C. Few studies have plotted the distribution records of these two subspecies on maps Wetzel , , According to the information published nearly thirty years ago, Cabassous u. Wetzel , described this river as a zone of integration of this subspecies with C.
This paper provide records of C. These records extend the known range of the species approximately 1, km away from the previously known geographic distribution, including Cerrado biome. As recognition of data points of animals found in the AMNH and NMNH collections were based on citations of localities on specimen labels, the geographical coordinates of these points were obtained from the gazetteer produced by Gardner Coordinates of other data points were indicated by the collectors or obtained by investigators during more recent field work.
Some external measurements were taken from specimen labels of five armadillos Table 1. Another distinctive characteristics used in this study is the carapace sharply marked laterally by a buffy border, as well as a rosaceous snout and abdomen; these body regions are darker in C. Only two other armadillo species have a carapace with a buffy border: the northern naked-armadillo C.
Table 1. External measurements in mm of Cabassous u. We compiled 16 records of C. Figure 1. Distribution of Cabassus u.
Table 2. Records of Cabassous u. Cabassous armadillos are poorly represented in collections. To review the genus, Wetzel analyzed specimens housed in the major collections of the world. He visited 34 institutions in 14 countries. His work involved the examination of 37 specimens of C.
Furthermore, all 41 analyzed specimens of C. The distribution of C. In Brazil, its distribution is restricted to regions located north of the Amazonas River. This river is described as a zone of integration of this subspecies with C.
However, there is no explanation of how this zone of integration was established. With the exception of Wetzel's investigations , , , no studies provided morphological characteristics or maps that show the geographic distribution of C. Recently, Smith et al documented the first specimens of Cabassous u.
The available information most often refers to C. The information compiled in our study indicates that the range of C.
On the other hand, we obtained a record in Confresa Mato Grosso , which lies in a transition area between the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Another record outside the Amazon region occurred at Lucas do Rio Verde, a Cerrado locality in Mato Grosso, and involved an armadillo using forested areas along the margins of the Verde River. This record expands the known range of occurrence of C. Probably this species was always there and never had been recorded.
The potential distribution of C. Our study confirms the real occurrence of C. Investigations that evaluated resources required by C. More recent studies suggest that C. Despite this knowledge about the species, no studies provided information on habitat preferences by the subspecies C. Our records in the Amazon and in forested areas in the Cerrado and ecotonal zones between these two biomes suggest that the subspecies C.
The compilation of records in our study shows that the knowledge on the geographic distribution of Cabassous taxa is quite little, and can change substantially with a few additional records. Further investigations are needed on the entire genus and to assess whether the two subspecies are actually to separate species.
We kindly thank researchers that gave us permission to present their unpublished records: Biologist M. Karla Leal, Veterinary Physician Dr. Herbert S.
Soares and Ecologist M. We express our gratitude to Linda K. The manuscript was greatly improved by comments and critical reviews from two anonymous referees.
Conservation status of the Xenarthra. In The Biology of the Xenarthra S. Loughry, eds. The University Press of Florida, Gainesville, p. ABBA, A. Edentata 11 1 Estimating potential geographic ranges of armadillos Xenarthra, Dasypodidae in Brazil under niche-based models. Mammalia 70 Ecology of the armadillos Cabassous unicinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus Cingulata: Dasypodidae in a Brazilian Cerrado.
Bernardino Rivadavia Inst. Cabassous centralis. Mammals of the Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, v. Neotropical rainforest mammals: a field guide. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Mammals of South America. Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews and Bats. First records of the southern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous unicinctus Cingulata: Dasypodidae in Paraguay. Edentata 12 1 Revision of the naked-tailed armadillos, genus Cabassous McMurtrie.
Carnegie Mus. Systematics, distribution, ecology and conservation of south american edentates. In Mammalian biology in South America M. Genoways, eds. The University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburg, p. Montgomery, ed. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, p. Order Cingulata Illiger, In Mammals of South America. Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats A. Gardner, ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Southern naked-tailed armadillo
New records of the southern naked-tailed armadillo Cabassous unicinctus unicinctus Linnaeus, Cingulata: Dasypodidae in Brazil. Novos registros do tatu-de-rabo-mole Cabassous unicinctus unicinctus Linnaeus, Cingulata: Dasypodidae no Brasil. The geographic distribution of Cabassous unicinctus is poorly known due to the low number of available records. Two subspecies with distributions limited by the Amazonas River were recognized in Cabassous u. This study aimed to update the distribution records of C. We compiled records from literature, museum collections and field studies.